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Eleventh Annual Report 


The Canadian Club 

of Winnipeg 


SEASON OF 1914-1915 



President THOS. R. DEACON, C.E. 

First Vice-President D. M. DUNCAN 

Second Vice-President K. W. CRAIG 

Literary Correspondent J. A. STEVENSON 

Honorary Chaplain The Et. Kev. S. P. MATHESON, 

Archbishop of Rupert's 
Land and Primate of all 

Honorary Secretary R. H. SMITH 

Honorary Treasurer CRAWFORD GORDON 

Executive Committee 





Mr. A. L. Crossin, President 1915-16 



Since Organization 

Organized 1904 

1904-5 J. S. EWART, K.C. 


1906-7 G. B. CROWE 


1908-9 :...LT.-COL. J. B. MITCHELL 

1909-10 .....REV. C. W. GORDON, D.D. 



1912-13 C. N. BELL, F.R.G.S. 

1913-14 C. W. ROWLEY 

1914-15 T. R. DEACON, C.E. 

Honorary Life Members 
of the Canadian Club of Winnipeg 








Minutes of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Canadian 
Club of Winnipeg, held on 26th November, 1915, 
T. K. Beacon, President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of last annual meeting were read and 

The annual report of the Executive Committee was 
submitted as follows: 

Winnipeg, 26th November, 1915. 

To the Members of the Canadian Club 


Your Executive have pleasure in presenting the 
Eleventh Annual Report of the Club. 

The effects of the European War upon Canada have 
been of a varied character. Commercial and Industrial 
interests have to some extent suffered from the existing 
condition of things. Our people, however, have been 
actuated by a splendid optimism, and an unflinching 
loyalty to the motherland. The patriotic note has been 
very often sounded by our speakers during the year, and 
our members have met it with an enthusiastic response. 
At the present time over 100 members of the Canadian 
Club of Winnipeg, including four members of your pres- 
ent Executive Committee, are serving their King and 
Country, and our Roll of Honor includes the names of 
not a few of Winnipeg's best known and most repre- 
sentative citizens. But this by no means expresses our 
practical loyalty; as a matter of fact, there are very few 
of our members who are not, directly or indirectly, 
"doing their bit" for the Empire. 

The Club, during the year, has done a considerable 
amount of work which has been of some service to the 


great cause of Education, especially in the realm of 
History and Civics. 

To keep in memory those who have rendered dis- 
tinguished service to Canada and to the Empire, and to 
commemorate outstanding events in the history of our 
country, the flag was flying on the Canadian Club flag- 
staff at the corner of Main Street and Burrows Avenue 
on the anniversary of the following: 

When Canada Became British Feb. 10 1763 

Birthday of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant- 
Governor of Upper Canada Feb. 25 1752 

The Constitutional Act granting increased powers of 
Government to Canada passed by the British 

House of Commons Mch. 7 1791 

R.N.W.M.P., Yukon Patrol Death of Insp. Fitzgerald... Mch. 22 1911 
The Scott South Pole Expedition Death of Captain 

Scott Mch. 291912 

Birth of Sir John Franklin, the great Explorer April 16 1786 

Birth of the Duke of Wellington, the great Soldier May 11769 

Death of Dr. David Livingstone, the great Explore? 

and Missionary : May 1 1873 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Discoverer of Newfoundland.... June 10 1578 

Arrival of Lord Selkirk Settlers June 25 1811 

Birth of Lord Nelson, the great Naval Hero Sept. 291758 

Birth of Sir Isaac Brock, Leader of the British Forcer 

in the War of 1812 Oct. 61769 

Trafalgar Day Oct. 211805 

Driving last Spike of C.PR Nov. 7 1885 

Articles dealing with these events were published 
in the daily newspapers, and in some of the non-English 
papers. These articles were also printed in pamphlet 
form and distributed throughout the Winnipeg Public 
Schools, and in addition copies were mailed to news- 
papers throughout the West, and were published on the 
same day as the article appeared in the local papers. It 
is hoped in this way to stimulate the consciousness of 
national life, keep alive a just pride in the achievements 
of the great Empire to which we belong and to inspire 
the young people of our community of every origin with 


a desire to play worthily their part in the development 
of our Canadian life and institutions. 

Our membership, which is now the largest of any 
Canadian Club in Canada, is thus summarized: 

Members who have paid their fees for year 1914-15 1698 

Members on Active Service or in Training, who have paid fees 

for year 1914-15 40 

Members on Active Service or in Training, being carried on 

Honor Roll ., 60 

Members transferred from other Clubs, etc 12 

Honorary Life Members 7 

Total Membership 1817 

At the sixteen luncheons held during the year, there 
has been an average attendance of 427, the largest in 
the history of the Club, and the addresses delivered were 
of an unusually high and instructive standard. The 
following statement gives dates, names of speakers, and 
subject of address: 

Dec. 5th, 1914 Hon. Arthur Meighen (Solicitor General for Can- 
ada). "The War." 

Dec. 15th, 1914 Mr. J. S. Woodsworth (Secretary Canadian Welfare 

League). "The Emigrant Invasion after tfle War 
Are We Ready for It?" 

Dec. 29th, 1914 Sir Robert Laird Borden (Premier of Canada). 

"Canada and the Empire." 

Jan. 18th, 1915 Major-General Hon. Sam Hughes (Minister of 

Militia). "The Canadian Contingents." 

Feb. llth, 1915 Mr. Joseph W. Flavelle (Toronto). "War and 


Feb. 25th, 1915 Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (London, Eng.). 

Mar. 12th, 1915 Dr. J. G. Rutherford (Superintendent of Agriculture 

and Animal Industry, Natural Resources Depart- 
ment, Canadian Pacific Railway). "The Inter- 
dependence of Farm on City." 

April 14th, 1915 Mr. John W. Dafoe (Editor of the Manitoba Free 

Press). "The Press as a Factor in the forming 
of Public Opinion." 

May 13th, 1915 Dr. Abraham L. McCrimmon (Chancellor of Mc- 

Master University, Toronto). "Some Canadian 
Interpretations of World Movements To-day." 

May 19th, 1915 Dr. Charles Sarolea. "Past, Present and Future 

of Belgium." 


June 29th, 1915 Newton Wesley Rowell, K.C. (Leader of the Oppo- 
sition in the Ontario Assembly). "Britannic and 
Germanic Ideals of Empire." 

Sept. 3rd, 1915 Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P. (Commandant of the 48th 

Highland Battalion of the Canadian Expedition- 
ary Force). "The Canadian Troop* in Flanders." 

Oct. 8th, 1915 Major Arthur W. Morley (90th Winnipeg Rifles). 

"Some Incidents of the 2nd Brigade of the Cana- 
dian Expeditionary Force." 

Oct. 15th, 1915 Mr. A. M. Nanton (Chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Manitoba Patriotic Fund). "How 
the Dependents of our Soldiers are Looked After." 

Oct. 26th, 1915 The Marquis of Aberdeen and Temair (formerly 

Governor-General of Canada). 

Nov. 4th, 1915 Lieutenant J. J. Simons, of Australia. "Australia in 

War Time." 

The moral force of the Canadian Clubs has ever 
been one of their most noted features, and not a few im- 
portant reforms have eventuated as the result of its 
exercise. During the past year, several important re- 
solutions were passed by the Club, notably the follow- 

"Whereas the British Empire is at war with Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary and Turkey; 

"And Whereas many positions of responsibility and 
trust in Canada are held by those who have come to us 
from these countries, and who are still in sympathy with 
their fellow-countrymen in Europe; 

"And Whereas such sympathy, though not neces- 
sarily inconsistent with an attitude of loyalty to Canada, 
may in some cases result in injury to the cause for which 
Canadians are fighting and will in all cases expose the 
sympathizers to suspicion merited or unmerited; 

"Therefore, be it resolved that the Canadian Club of 
Winnipeg urge the Government of Canada, the Govern- 
ment and Municipalities of Manitoba, to transfer or sus- 
pend for the period of the war all those officers or em- 
ployees who may reasonably be held to be in sympathy 
with our enemies, from offices or employment in which 


they have it in their power to do harm to Canada or the 
British Empire." 

"The Canadian Club of Winnipeg cordially appreci- 
ates the action of the Provincial Government in its re- 
striction of the hours of sale of intoxicating liquor in 
this Province, as contained in the recent Order-in-Coun- 
cil, commends this policy as one truly patriotic in its 
scope and application, and urges all citizens to co-oper- 
ate in its observance and so promote sobriety and 
economy among our people in this time of national 

"That in the opinion of this Club, soldiers returning 
incapacitated from the front should be given preference 
in appointment to employment by the Government of 
Canada and the Provinces or the Civic Service, to posi- 
tions which they may be qualified to fill, irrespective of 
their political attachments, as a recognition of their ser- 
vices to the Empire in this great crisis." 

"Whereas the Canadian Club of Winnipeg re- 
cognizes with pride and gratitude, the heroism of Cana- 
dian soldiers on the battlefields of Belgium, and ac- 
knowledges the valuable work the Government has al- 
ready done in raising and equipping men for service at 
the front; 

"And Whereas the Club further recognizes the great 
severity of the strain upon the resources of the Empire 
and the momentous character of the issues at stake for 

"Therefore be it resolved that this Club respect- 
fully and earnestly call the attention of the Dominion 
Government to the extreme importance of making such 
preparation as will enable Canada in time of need to 


exert to the full her strength and resources in the pre- 
sent struggle, and urge the Government: 

"1. To maintain the force that represents Canada 
at the front at the strength of at least double the present 
number of men provided; 

"2. To maintain the present Militia force of Can- 
ada and to take immediate steps to proceed to enrol and 
organize a force as reserve of 250,000 men, to receive 
preliminary instruction in manoeuvre and especially in 

"3. To employ to the utmost limit of their capacity 
the manufacturing plants of the Dominion for the pro- 
duction of munitions of war or provide them otherwise." 

"In view of the great problem, even under normal 
conditions, of imbuing the many non-English-speaking 
nationalities of Western Canada with Canadian ideals, 
this Executive of the Winnipeg Canadian Club regrets 
that at a time like the present when this difficult prob- 
lem is aggravated and accentuated, German newspapers, 
such as 'West Canada' and 'Der Nordwesten,' in Winni- 
peg; 'Der Courier/ in Regina, and 'Der Alberta Herold,' 
Edmonton, should publish in their columns editorials 
and other matter pronouncedly pro-German and design- 
ed to convey the impression to our German population 
that Germany and her Allies are proving victorious. 

"And this Executive is strongly of the opinion that 
the Dominion Government should take immediate steps 
to suspend said publications pending satisfactory and 
sufficient guarantees being given that they will refrain 
from deliberately giving a pro-German color and ap- 
pearance in the presentation of telegraphic or other 
war news, or from printing pro-German editorial 


"And this Executive would further suggest that 
other Canadian publications printed in the language of 
those nations with whom the British Empire is at war 
should be closely supervised by an official of the Domin- 
ion Government, with a view to the prevention of the 
publication of articles similar to those complained of 
in the foregoing." 

Anyone who has been observing the trend of public 
affairs must have seen that, in regard to the present war 
and its concomitants, such resolutions as these, coming 
from an important body of representative citizens, had 
a notable effect for good. 

The following money grants have been made by the 
Club during the year: 

$40.00 towards Tablet in memory of Laurence Irv- 
ing and his wife. 

$100.00 to Y.M.C.A. to assist in special work in 
Military Camps. 

$200.00 covering free Studentships and Bursaries in 
the Winnipeg Art School. 

$100.00 to Boy Scout Movement. 

$150.00 towards Field Kitchen for 27th Winnipeg 

11,000 Song Sheets supplied to soldiers in Camp 

The Club also presented prizes to non-English stud- 
ents attending the free evening school classes, con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Winnipeg Public School 
Board, for progress made in acquiring a working know- 
ledge of the English language. During the past year, 
twenty-eight students were, upon the recommendation 
of their teachers, awarded prizes. 


As in former years, individual and class prizes for 
proficiency in Canadian History were awarded by the 
Canadian Club to scholars and schools throughout the 
Province as follows: 

Individual Scholarships of $20.00 each: 

Leona Wyzykowski, Beausejour, Man. 
William Chesney, Teulon, Man. 
Dorothy G. Aldis, Deloraine, Man. 
Holmfridur Johnson, Arborg, Man. 

Class Scholarships of $20.00 value each: 

Britannia School, St. James, Man. 
Teulon School, Teulon, Man. 
Arborg School, Arborg, Man. 
Alexander School, Alexander, Man. 
Glenella School, Glenella, Man. 
St. Charles Convent, St. Charles, Man. 

In order to encourage and increase the interest be- 
ing taken by the men of Military District No. 10, who 
enlisted, and were in training at Camp Hughes, the 
Canadian Club presented a handsome shield for com- 
petition among the various regiments in the Camp for 
proficiency in the handling of the machine gun. The 
competition was held at the Camp in October, and was 
keenly contested, the 44th Battalion being adjudged the 
winners. Opportunity was taken when this battalion 
was passing through Winnipeg on its way to the front 
to present the trophy. 







It is not to be expected that a large club like ours, 
comprising, as it does, all stages of manhood, would pass 
over twelve months without having to record many 
losses by death. During 1914-15, fifteen of our number 
were called away into the great beyond. 

Sir Charles Tupper, an Honorary Life Member of 
our Club, died but a few weeks ago at the advanced age 
of 96. Apart from his devotion for, and the great ser- 
vices rendered to his country, which caused him to be 
reverenced in no ordinary way, Sir Charles had a per- 
sonality which won from all true Canadians the highest 

Mr. N. Bawlf, a former member of our Executive, 
and Mr. John Leslie, a former Vice-President, passed 
away after very short illnesses, both universally missed. 

Mr. Archibald MacDonald, who also has been called 
to his rest, was one of Manitoba's pioneers, and was held 
in much esteem by all who knew him. 

Mr. J. H. Brock, associated for many years with the 
Insurance and Financial interests of the West, was one 
of our most respected citizens. Mr. John O'Donohue was 
a faithful member of the Dominion Civil Service, and he 
was often present at our gatherings, until prevented by 
the infirmities of old age. The other members who have 
been taken from us are Messrs. H. W. Nanton, W. A. 
Knowles, J. B. Pringle, G. E. Todd, F. C. J. Hawkins, W. 
R. Watson, and Hon. W. H. Montague all loyal mem- 
bers of the Club. 

We should be wanting in gratitude and respect, did 
we not speak in terms of admiration of Capt. John 
Geddes and Lieut. R. Hoskins, both of whom died on 


the field of battle, fighting bravely for King and Country, 
and for the cause of righteousness and justice. 

"So greet thou well thy dead 

Across the homeless sea, 

And be thou comforted 

Because they died for thee. 

Far off they served, but now their deed is done, 

For evermore their life and thine are one." 

(Henry Newbolt) 

Submitted on behalf of the Executive Committee, 




Hon. Secretary. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 


Crawford Gordon, the Honorary Treasurer, then 
submitted the following-statement of the finances of the 


For Year ending 15th November, 1915 


Balance 21st November, 1914 $1,091.48 

Interest on deposit in Savings Bank 25.34 

Proceeds Sale of Luncheon Tickets 3,333.40 

1,738 Memberships 3,476.00 


Association of Canadian Clubs, membership 

fee $ 20.00 

Automobile and Cab Hire 71.65 

Expenses of Speakers 37.60 

Erection of Flag Pole at Burrows Avenue and 

Main Street . 263.00 

Flowers 35.50 

Laurence Irving Memorial 40.00 

Y.M.C.A. (work in military camps)........ . 100.00 

27th Battalion Field Kitchen ^9- 150.00 

Luncheon Expenses 3,733.00 

Postage 413.00 

Printing and Stationery 1,104.35 

Scholarships in Public Schools of the Province 

for proficiency in Canadian History 221.40 

Prizes to non-English students in Winnipeg 
Evening Schools for marked progress in 
acquiring a knowledge of the English 

language 100.00 

Stenographers 263.98 

Telegrams ...'. 158.95 


Verbatim Reports of Addresses delivered dur- 
ing year 87.50 

Sundry 102.80 

Cash on Hand- 
Savings Bank $500.00 

Current Account . . 523.49 



We have examined the books and vouchers of the 
Canadian Club of Winnipeg for the year ending 15th 
November, 1915, and hereby certify the above to be a 
true and correct statement of the Receipts and Disburse- 
ments for that period. 


L C HAYES I Honorary Auditors. 

The report was adopted. 

Mr. W. S. Fallis, chairman of the committee ap- 
pointed to nominate the officers of the Club for the year 
1915-1916, submitted the following report of the com- 

President: A. L. CROSSIN 

First Vice-President : C. K. NEWCOMBE 

Second Vice-President : W. H. CROSS 

Literary Correspondent : S. R. TARR 

Honorary Chaplain: REV. ANDREW BAIRD, D.D. 

Honorary Secretary: R. H. SMITH 
Honorary Treasurer: CRAWFORD GORDON 


Executive Committee 





The report of the Nominating Committee was un- 
animously adopted. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



Names of Members of Winnipeg Canadian Club 
who have gone to the front, or who have enlisted and 
are now in training for overseas service. 

Abbott, S. W. 
Ackland, C. M. 
Alldritt, W. A. 
Andrews, Herbert 
Baird, J. R. 
Barrowclough, S. L. 
Bell, Dr. F. C. 
Bell, J. K. 
Bell, Dr. P. G. 
Bell, Dr. T. H. 
Benwell, P. W. 
Benson, S. Percy 
Bingham, R. F. 
Black, N. J. 
Blanchard, Dr. R. J. 
Bonnycastle, S. L. 
Bowring, C. T. 
Boyle, R. B. 
Brick, W. J. 
Brodie, Malcolm J. 
Burch, R. E. 
Burritt, Royal 
Burwash, L. T. 
Cadham, Dr. F. T. 
Cameron, A. P. 
Campbell, Dr. Spurgeon 
Cherry, H. M. 
Choate, A. E. 
Chown, Dr. H. H. 
Clark, J. St. Clair 
Claydon, A. 
Collum, W. J. 
Cook, Thorn. S. 
Cope, E. F. 
Craggs, G. S. 
Crowe, J. A. 
Crozier, J. A. 


Culver, A. F. 

Curran, V. 

D'Arcy, N. J. 

Davison, W. E. 

Deacon, Edgar A. 

Dennistoun, R. M. 

Dinnen, N. J. 

Drummond-Hay, L. V. 

Drummond, R. 

Duncan, D. M. 

Edwards, Harold 

Flenley, Ralph 

Freeland, F. E. 

Gagnon, J. T. C. 
*Geddes, John 

Gibbs, P. A. 

Gordon, Rev. C .W. 

Grainger, Harry 

Grassie, Wm. 

Green, Dr. C. W. 

Guild, W. F. 

Gunn, C. S. 

Gunn, Dr. J. A. 

Guthrie, A. 

Haffner, E. B. 

Hallum, W. B. 

Hamber, H. B. 

Hansford, J. E. 

Harris, G. M. 

Harvie, A. K. 

Hastings, V. J. 

Hawkins, S. S. 

Heron. G. R. 

Hesketh, J. A. 

Hill, A. R. 

Hindle. D. A. 

Hinds, Fred 
*Hoskins, Ronald 

Hossie, W. A. 

Houblon, R. E. A. 

Jamieson, G. W. 

Johnstone, E. B. 

Jones, Maurice 


* Jones, R. E. N. 
Jordan, H. K. 

Kenny, W. F. 

Laing, G. S. 
Lake, Wm. A. 
Lakie, P. 
Laver, E. C. 
Lawless, W. T. 
Law, Thos. 
Lewis, R. 
Lindsay, C. V. 
Lineham, Dr. D. M. 
Lipsett, L. J. 

Macaw, W. M. 
Macdonell, A. C. 
Macdonell, Dr. John 
Macfarlane, W. G. 
MacKenzie, W. A. 
MacLean, N. B. (Major) 
Maclean, R. M. 
Mainer, R. G. 
Mainer, R. H. 
McAdam, C. S. 
McAlpine, A. D. H. 
McClelland, S. 
McLean, D. 
McMillan, Rev. J. W. 
McOnie, R. 
McTavish, R. B. 
Mermagen, E. W. 
Meiklejohn, F .E. 
Miller, P. W. 
Miller, G. G. 
Milbourne, A. J. B. 
Milne, C. N. G. 
Mitchell, Dr. Ross 
Moorehead, Dr. E. S. 
Morden, G. W. 
Mordy, A. G. 
Morley, A. W. 
Mullins, H. A. 
Murray, Canon J. O. 
Musgrove, Dr. W. T. 


Myers, R. M. 

Ney, Frank A. 

Key, F. J. 

Newberry, W. F. 

Newcombe, C. K. 

Newton, J. O. 

Nichol, F. T. 

Northwood, Geo. W. 

Niven, Dr. E. Fielden 

O'Grady, G. F. deC. 

Osier, H. F. 

Paterson, R. W. 

Paton, G. M. 

Phillips, A. E. 

Porter, H. W. 

Poussette, G. F. C. 

Pratt, Edward S. 

Proctor, J. P. 

Prowse, Dr. S. W. 

Reade, Hubert T. 

Richards, S. R. 

Kichardson, B. V. 

Riley, C. S. 
*Robertson, J. E. 

Roe, J. M. 

Ross, A. M. S. 
*Ross, Geo. H. 

Ross, R. A. 

Rutherford, Gerald S. 

Ruttan, H. N. 

Sadleir, Dr. J. F. 

Scroggie, James 

Scott, C. M. 

Sellwood, R. A. 

Semmons, J. N. 

Shaw, H. B. 

Shore, R. J. 

Skaptason, J. B. 

Sprague, D. B. 

Sprague, D. E. 

Sprague, H. C. H. 

Spry, W. B. 

Steele, S. B. 


Sterling, S. L. 
Stevenson, J. A. 
Stewart, Earl 
Stinson, C. R. 
Stinson, C. R. 
Sutherland, John 
Taylor, T. W. 
Thomson, R. M. 
Thornley, F. 
Thornton, Stuart 
Todd, Dr. J. O. 
Tyrell, C. S. 
Wadge, Dr. H. W. 
Walker, P. 
Ward, J. Stanley 
Ward, J. W. 
Wardaugh, M. P. 
Webb, A. J. 
Weld, Geo. H. 
West, John E. 
Williams, T. O. 
Wilson, F. K. 
Wilson, Prof. N. R. 
Wise, H. A. 
Young, A. H. 
Young, Dr. F. A. 
Young, R. S. 
Young, R. S. 
Zeglinski, B. 

^Killed in Action. 


It has been exceedingly difficult to secure a com- 
plete list of our members who have enlisted for over- 
seas service, and inadvertently some names which 
should have been included may have been overlooked. 
The Secretary would be glad to be advised of any such. 




5th December, 1914. 

Hon. Arthur Meighen, Solicitor-General for Canada. 

Prefacing his address by stating that he purposed 
speaking of the meaning of the present struggle, of its 
life and death meaning for us, our country and our 
civilization, Mr. Meighen said: 

"This war is the wars of the past multiplied to- 
gether. Why then are we a party to it? If we succeed, 
what should we do? This is a conflict between two 
schools of thought; the German school on the one hand, 
of Frederick the Great, of Neitsche, of Bismarck, of 
Treitschke, and of Jagow; and on the other hand the 
British school of Bacon, of Burke, of Pitt, of Canning, 
of Asquith yes, and of Lincoln and Wilson too! But 
why are they in conflict? Why cannot they live side by 
side? Because if the first school is to live and thrive, 
there is no room on earth for another. The world is 
making its choice. 'The German state,' says Treitschke, 
must be the supreme and only sovereign of its destiny 
and must freely and for itself determine its place in the 
world/ Sovereignty as he defines it, means release from 
international obligations wherever they conflict with 
the interest of that state whose place in the world 
means all that the sword can carve. They tell us that 
to profess otherwise is, in Mr. Asquith's translation, 'so 
much threadbare and nauseating cant/ 

"Such is the theory of the state as defined by Treit- 
schke. And they go still further than that. 'Treaties,' 
he asserts, 'are not restraining. They are self-imposed. 
They are restrictions placed by the state upon its own 
actions. That is all a treaty is and if the state places 


a restriction upon itself, the state can remove it.' This 
would mean, if applied to our own actions, that all the 
principles around which our race has rallied for two 
thousand years, all the ordinary virtues as we under- 
stand them, have no place in the politics of the world. 

"That, gentlemen, is the doctrine pronounced and 
preached by the most popular philosopher of Germany 
during the 19th century. 

"When Frederick the Great said, one hundred and 
fifty years ago, 'A great nation that has a chance to 
humble a rival and does not do so, is a fool,' he was 
only the forerunner of Neitsche and Treitschke, the 
voice crying in the wilderness. When Bernhardi wrote 
in cold ink: 'You have heard it said that a good cause 
will justify even war, but I say that a good war will 
sanctify any cause,' he was merely their echo. Jagow 
was nothing more than their faithful disciple when he 
gasped at Britain's fidelity to Belgium and called the 
treaty of 1839 a 'scrap of paper'. The tragedy of it all 
is that multitudes applauded the one and worshipped 
the memory of the other. 

"The treaty with Belgium's 'scrap of paper;' that 
is our foundation of this conflict. It is important, vital- 
ly important, that we understand it. If we fail to under- 
stand that, we cannot get the whole meaning of the 
struggle. We cannot see the bigness of the issue. It is 
a conflict of ideas as inevitable as the laws of life and 
death. We need to understand that, and never to forget 
it; otherwise we cannot know all that we are fighting 
for. Science run mad, 'Kultur,' as they call it, has de- 
veloped a cancer in world politics. Success in this war 
means its extraction. Defeat (forgive me for mention- 
ing it) would mean the desecration of those principles 
around which our race has rallied in the storms of life. 
It would mean the surrender of what to us is the ark of 


civilization. It would mean the progressive delivery- 
over of humanity to a new-fangled paganism. 

"An excuse, even a good excuse, will not satisfy the 
British people, even in the narrow sense of the word 
justification. We must be convinced, when we are com- 
pelled to go to war, that we are compelled to go to war 
to save our country. To save it from what? From hu- 
miliation and annihilation ; to preserve it from dishonor 
and decay (for dishonor is the open door to disintegra- 
tion). No great country can ever survive the loss of the 
respect of its people. Veneration for the national honor 
is the binding force of an empire. Was honor a stake 
for us in this war? It takes some presumption to ask 
that question in the hearing of intelligent men. Our 
country had to fight or prostitute its good faith. What 
is more, it had to fight or imperil its existence. Bel- 
gium stood upon her bond her cry passed to Great 
Britain, 'We have kept the faith,' said King Albert, 'Will 
you keep yours?' Britain chose all chose. 

"It was only when confronted with a choice between 
keeping our solemn obligations in the discharge of a 
binding trust in the face of a shameless subservience 
to naked force, that we threw away the scabbard. 'We 
do not repent our decision,' so said Asquith, and so says 
every man who wears the name of Briton. 

"You have read the documents, and you have meas- 
ured the combatants. When you see strength and indo- 
lence on one side and weakness and humiliation on the 
other, it is not usually very difficult to locate right and 
wrong. Germany said : 'Leave the giant and the dwarf 
alone to fight this out. The giant is my partner.' 'Not 
while I live,' said Russia. 'Servia must do right. She 
must atone her wrong, if wrong there be; but she must 
not be crushed.' Britain took no side. She promised no 
support. She exhausted every resource to secure con- 



ciliation. What then is charged against her? That she 
should have stood in shining armor beside Germany and 
threatened Russia with war if she dared to protect little 
Servia. 'And because you did not/ says Germany, 'we 
hold you guilty of all this bloodshed even for the butch- 
ery of Belgium/ Imagine the apostles of 'education and 
culture' solemnly pressing such humbug on the world. 
While the war lasts, let us keep these facts alive and 
lighted in our minds. Surely, if we do and we are men, 
we need no other incentive. If Canadians read the facts 
of the white books of the two countries, they will do 
their duty. But what a time this is for us to live 
through! It seems like the focus of the eternities. For 
the rest of our lives, the best measure of our worth will 
be how we behaved in the war. 

"We are in the vortex, and I think we have heard for 
the last time that the entanglements of Britain, her 'en- 
tanglement with Belgium/ is of no interest to us. We 
are as much in the vortex as if we were in the City of 
London. The foe that faces us now is greater than the 
foe that faced Britain in the days of Napoleon. It is the 
greatest foe that ever confronted a nation, or a combina- 
tion of nations. We liave to win or go down. That is 
the cardinal truth, and that is all that any man need 
touch upon. There can be no compromise. A com- 
promise would be a sin against ourselves and our chil- 
dren, against civilization itself. As to the result, we 
fear not. The soldier on the field, the statesman at the 
helm, have demonstrated that all the qualities that made 
us what we are, exist to-day in full measure as in the 
days gone by. 

"The Canadian Government has been and is now 
loaded with unwonted responsibilities. If we know our 
duty, we will spare nothing, but bend every energy to 
the needs of this conflict. The other functions of gov- 
ernment we must still perform but this is the first! 


The lives of our sons we hold sacred. Of the wealth of 
our people we are only trustees. But in this great fight 
we fail utterly if we spare either to achieve success. Be- 
fore any failure on our part will expose the common 
cause to peril, we are prepared to bankrupt this nation. 

"We may pass down through the valley of the shad- 
ow. But we battle for the undoubted right and if we 
see to it that might in this day, two thousand years A.D., 
that might springs to the side of right, for that is our 
charge; that the world's muscle is behind justice and 
good faith in a war with selfish aggression then we 
will have finished well our great work, and can count our 
inheritance in terms more blissful than the past has 



15th December, 1914. 

J. S. Woodsworth, 
Secretary Canadian Welfare League 

Mr. Woodsworth reminded his hearers that the war 
had clearly revealed to us what we had only begun to 
suspect: That we had in our midst large numbers of 
undigested aliens who might at any time cause a serious 
disturbance within our body politic. 

"The danger now to be guarded against is that a sud- 
den panic may lead us to take extreme positions and 
thus intensify and perpetuate racial bitterness and ani- 
mosities. Canadian unification is still far from com- 
plete, and the introduction of foreign elements is mak- 
ing the progress extremely complicated and difficult. 

"While admittedly the question is an exceedingly 
complicated one and it is impossible to determine accur- 
ately what the resultant effect of the war will be, it ap- 
pears probable that the war will accelerate rather than 
retard this world movement of the people. In support 
of this conclusion, two general considerations may be 
urged. First, war tends to break down national social 
barriers, to loosen old associations, and to enlarge our 
little world; second, this war will change the whole 
economic map of Europe and of the world. Trade cur- 
rents will take entirely new directions. The precise 
effects no one can prophesy, but on the whole, Canada, 
a new country, largely as yet undeveloped and with un- 
limited natural resources stands to gain. 

"Are we ready for more immigrants? Even without 
a greatly augmented increase, our problem is a serious 


one. As yet no constructive policy has been adopted for 
dealing with it in any adequate way. Our immigration 
department has made excellent arrangements for the 
care of immigrants during their journey, has provided 
for their comfort at points of transfer, has even helped 
them financially till they obtained a foothold. But more 
far-reaching measures are absolutely necessary. Our 
industrial system, our educational system, our political 
system, must be decidedly modified to meet the new 
needs. We have a commission on conservation of 
natural resources. Why not a commission on conserva- 
tion of human resources?" 

A chart exhibited by the speaker, showed that Can- 
ada's population in 1901 was 5,371,315; of this 57 per 
cent., or 3,630,195, was British. The immigration from 
July 1, 1900, to March 31, 1914, was 2,906,022. The 
various nationalities were represented in the following 
proportions: English, 27.63 per cent.; Welsh, .44; 
Scotch, 7.98; Irish, 2.36; Dominions, .72; total British, 
38.41 per cent; United States, 34.41. The non-English- 
speaking peoples were divided as follows: Norwegian, 
.65 percent; Swedish, .91; Danish, .19; Icelandic, .14; 
Finnish, .71; French, .81 ; Belgian, .5; Swiss, .07; Dutch, 
.30; German, 1.25; Austria-Hungary, 6.63; Polish, 1.17; 
Roumanian, .28; Russian, 3.17; Italian, 3.87; Greek, 
.24; Hebrew, 2.49; Spanish, etc., .07; Bulgarian, etc., 
.52; Syrian, etc., .42; negro, etc., 1.71; Chinese, 1.06; 
Japanese, .53; Hindu, .19: Total non-English-speaking, 
27.18. The distribution by provinces was as follows: 
Maritime provinces, 4 per cent; Quebec, 16; Ontario, 
26: Manitoba, 15; Saskatchewan, 13; Alberta, 14; Bri- 
tish Columbia, 12. 

In view of the situation presented by this chart, Mr. 
Woodsworth intimated that the question for us in Can- 
ada to decide is, not only "What will we do with our im- 
migrants?" but "What will our immigrants do with us?" 
The task is not necessarily how to paint this whole map 
red, but at least to introduce true harmony among the 
manv nationalities that are living side by side beneath 
our flag. 


Chart two showed the total immigration from 1913 
to 1914 as 384,478, against 402,432 in 1912-13, or a de- 
crease of 4.46 per cent. The British immigration was 
142,622 as against 150,542, or a decrease of 5.26 per cent. 
Immigration from the United States was 107,530, as 
against previous year 139,009, or a decrease of 22.54 per 
cent. From other countries the immigration was 
134,726, as against previous year 112,881, or an increase 
of 19.35 per cent. Thus, while there was a decrease in 
the immigration both from Great Britain and the United 
States, there was an increase in our non-English immi- 

"While we superficially class all of these people 
as foreigners, we must remember that in reality each 
is a foreigner to all the others. The Canadians are the 
amalgam which must bind together these diverse 
peoples. My question is: Mix these peoples together, 
and what is the outcome? Prom the racial standpoint 
it is evident that we will not longer be British, probably 
no longer Anglo-Saxon. Prom the standpoint of 
eugenics it is not at all clear that the highest results are 
to be obtained through the indiscriminate mixing of all 
sorts and conditions. But if they do not intermingle 
and intermarry, the situation may be even more serious, 
as we will then set up more or less of a caste system. 
From the religious standpoint, what will be the out- 
come? For it must be remembered that most of our 
foreign immigrants do not belong to the churches which 
are at the present time dominant in Canada. From the 
political standpoint it is evident that there will be very 
great changes and very serious dangers. Whilst it is 
true that these peoples are not united, and that the Eng- 
lish majority may retain its power by pitting one against 
the other, at the same time it is also true that such a 
condition is far from satisfactory and would inevitably 
result in placing any party at the mercy of any one lead- 
ing nationality, thus practically giving that nationality 


the balance of power. Unfortunately, already many of 
these foreigners have been politically corrupted. 

"Now, from the social standpoint. We must re- 
member that each nationality brings with it its own 
social customs and ideals. Which will prevail? Again, 
from the industrial standpoint. There is the serious 
question as to whether with such a rapid influx Cana- 
dian standards of living can be maintained. 

"Let me say a good word for the foreigner. Few of 
us realize the riches which he brings with him. In fact, 
from Europe these streams of immigration bear with 
them valuable deposits which may enrich our national 
life if we have but the good sense to conserve them. A 
high idealism; love of art, music and literature; patient 
industry; deep religious devotion; all these the immi- 
grant brings to our shores. We cannot afford to lose any 
of them. Most Canadians despise the foreigner. The 
foreigner himself soon catches the prevalent attitude 
and becomes ashamed even of the excellencies in his 
own civilization. Unfortunately too, he often picks up 
the worst in our Canadian life. Too often the children 
despise their parents and disregard their views, and thus 
constitute the class from which our juvenile criminals 
are recruited. No man should think lightly of his mother 

"A century ago the population of the United States 
was five millions. At the begining of this present cen- 
tury Canada's population was five millions. But whereas 
in the first ten years of last century the United States 
received only 70,000 immigrants, Canada has received 
nearly two millions in the first ten years of this century. 
That is, our responsibility is 28 times as great as that of 
the United States. Further, up to the year 1870, less 
than 1 per cent, of the total immigration to the United 
States came from south-eastern Europe. Almost 20 per 


cent, of our immigration comes from south-eastern 
Europe. According to our northern standards the peoples 
from south-eastern Europe are lower in the scale, 
but in any case the very fact that they are so different 
from ourselves constitutes the problem. If the United 
States had difficulty, how much greater our task? 

"I would like to call your attention to the serious 
problems arising because of the varieties of language, 
the lack of proper housing, educational needs, and the 
question of unemployment. The difficulty is, that we 
have too long been quite indifferent to these needs. We 
have tried to segregate ourselves as far as possible from 
them, have exposed them to all sorts of vicious influ- 
ences; then wonder why they are not assimilating. 

"What social opportunities are afforded the immi- 
grant? The closing of the bars is a negative way of 
dealing with the problem. Our other public and semi- 
public buildings should be thrown more widely open; I 
think particularly our schools. They are open in this 
city, I am glad to say, for the teaching of the English 
language three nights in the week. Why not throw 
them open for social gatherings for the other three 
nights? To-day we practically drive the immigrant into 
questionable places of resort. 

"Several important questions arise in the matter of 
education. Foreign children leave the schools too early 
in large numbers. Then there is the question associated 
with the term 'bi-lingualism.' Personally I have a great 
deal of sympathy for the foreigner in his desire to re- 
tain the language which his father and mother speak, 
and which is the language of his religious expression. 
I can see no reason why under proper safeguards pro- 
vision should not be made for the teaching of other than 
the English language. We do this in our universities, 
where we recognize the cultural value of the various 
European languages. Why should it not be done at the 



age when children can most readily learn a second lan- 
guage. But this should be done in such a way that it 
would not interfere with unifying influences of the 
school. English should be the language of our schools 
and should be taught thoroughly. 

"Further, modifications in our public school system 
become necessary. We have made no general provision 
for the teaching of adult immigrants. In this respect 
Winnipeg has done excellent work, but in the majority 
of our Canadian communities absolutely no effort is 
being made to instruct our adult foreigners in the Eng- 
lish language or in the principles of Canadian citizen- 

"The race map of western Canada looks very much 
like a crazy patchwork quilt. How can these peoples 
be sufficiently united to form one strong nation? Europe 
has been transferred to Canada. Here we have all the 
divisions of race and language and social customs, and 
all the inherited animosities of centuries. What Europe 
has failed to do in a thousand years Canada must at- 
tempt. On this point at least both the east and the west 
will take suggestions from Winnipeg. 

"Gentlemen, we are the sons of pioneers. Our fore- 
fathers, daring the wilds of eastern Canada, carved out 
for themselves homes in the forest and laid the founda- 
tion of a mighty nation. We honor their memory, not 
so much by proudly reciting their heroic deeds as by 
carrying forward their work. Out national and imperial 
ideal must be big enough and noble enough to include 
the best that all the nations may bring us." 



29th December, 1914. 

Right Honorable Sir Robert Laird Borden, 
Premier of Canada. 

After expressing his appreciation of the Club's 
electing him to a life membership previous to his rising 
to speak, the Premier referred feelingly to the unanimity 
with which Canada was facing its great task. Continu- 
ing he said: 

"I shall not pause to speak to you this afternoon as 
to the justice of the cause for which we are fighting, be- 
cause the judgment not only of the Empire but the judg- 
ment of the world has already been passed, and has de- 
clared that our cause is just; and if anything would 
serve, just as an illustration of the fact that this is a war 
of aggression in the final analysis by Germany and her 
allies, that fact is to be found in the declaration of Italy 
that she was not pledged to join in this war, because it 
was not a war of defence and therefore must be a war 
of aggression. I have been among the people of the re- 
public to the south of us, and am glad to bring back to 
you from them a message of sympathy, a message ab- 
solutely signifying to you their belief that the cause in 
which the British Empire is working to-day is a just 
cause and one in which men can enlist their whole sym- 

"Between the Prussian autocracy and its ideal of 
world-wide dominance, British supremacy upon the sea 
has stood as a barrier. In all quarters of the world where 
the pathways of commerce cross, the British supremacy 
on the ocean made her mistress of the situation; and 
Germany soon realized that if her ideal of dominance 
was to be attained, her future must be on the sea. 

/ 5*>^~^ U 

Sir Robert Laird Borden 


"We are only beginning to realize the enormous 
military strength of the German Empire. We are only 
commencing to understand how immensely superior she 
stood in military preparation, organization and re- 
sources to all the other nations at the outbreak of the 
war. Wielding that tremendous power, which made any 
apprehension of attack by our Empire a mere idle 
dream, Germany has for at least twenty years with 
constantly increasing emphasis pressed her challenge of 
the seas upon the British Empire. Thus the contest in 
naval armaments which British statesmen have vainly 
endeavored to prevent, has proceeded from year to year. 
No shot was fired, no ships were sunk, no battle fought; 
but it was in truth war between the two nations. 

"On three recognized occasions during the past ten 
years Germany has brought Europe to the verge of 
actual war. On two of these occasions she imposed her 
will upon Europe; but on the third Great Britain stood 
firmly resolute, and Germany receded. The events of 
1911 have never been forgotten; and there is reason to 
believe that but for the commanding influence and un- 
tiring efforts of Sir Edward Grey, the war which broke 
out in 1914 would have been forced upon Europe during 
that previous year. I have spoken of three occasions; 
but, as was once said to me by a statesman of great 
experience in the foreign office: 'The international 
kettle is always on the verge of boiling, although the 
people know nothing of it until the steam begins to 
escape.' When the secrets of diplomatic records come 
to be fully disclosed, I do not doubt that in each of the 
past ten years German aggressiveness will be found to 
have made war imminent or at least probable. 

"If our preparation for the struggle was insignifi- 
cant compared with that of Germany, let us not forget 
that her resources are insignificant compared with those 
of this empire. There are many things which count, 


besides armed forces in the field. In the organization 
of modern war, all the nation's resources must be reck- 
oned with. Consider those of Canada, which even dur- 
ing the coming year can supply food products to an al- 
most unlimited extent. Our great transportation sys- 
tems are an invaluable asset, even for military purposes. 
Already our factories are turning out not only clothing 
and equipment of all kinds, but munitions of war on a 
great scale and of a character which we did not dream 
of producing four months ago. Our inexhaustible re- 
sources in the forests, the fisheries, the coal and min- 
erals of Canada, are tremendous assets in this war. All 
this must tell in the long run, as Germany will yet know. 
In a word, we have the resources, while Germany has 
the preparation. 

"The ability of the allied armies to hold in check the 
powerful forces of Germany pending the preparation 
which we lack, has been amply demonstrated; and the 
armies of the Empire, as well as its enormous resources, 
are already being organized on such a scale as leaves 
no room for doubt as to the issue of this struggle. The 
preparation must be thoroughly and adequately made. 
It would be not only useless but criminal to send our 
citizen soldiers into the field of battle without the or- 
ganization, training and discipline which are essential 
under conditions of modern warfare. 

"This struggle involves issues which transcend even 
the interest and the future of our own empire and which 
embrace the whole theory and practice of government 
for all the future generations of the world. If the mili- 
tarist and autocratic ideal of the Prussian oligarchy can 
assert itself in world-wide dominance, the progress and 
development of democracy will either have been stayed 
forever or the work of centuries will have been undone 
and mankind must struggle anew for ideals of freedom 
and rights of self-government which have been estab- 


lished as the birthright of the British people. Thus the 
powers of democracy are themselves on trial to-day; and 
the issue of this conflict concerns not only the exist- 
ence of the British Empire but all the world-wide as- 
pirations that have found expression in the freedom 
which its people enjoy. 

"The unity of purpose inspiring the British domin- 
ions, and their participation in this war upon so vast a 
scale have amazed the Prussian war-lords. Also it has 
shattered their confident belief that the military re- 
sources of those dominions were entirely negligible. 
Current developments must mark a. great epoch in the 
history of inter-imperial relations. There are those 
within sound of my voice who will see the overseas do- 
minion surpass in wealth and population the British 
Islands there are children playing in your streets who 
may see Canada alone attain that eminence. Thus, it is 
impossible to believe that the existing status so far 
as it concerns the control of foreign policy and extra- 
imperial relations, can remain as it is to-day. All are 
conscious of the complexity of the problem thus pres- 
ented ; but no one need despair of a satisfactory solution, 
and no one can doubt the profound influence which the 
tremendous events of the pa>3t few months and of those 
in the immediate future must exercise upon one of the 
most interesting and far-reaching questions ever pres- 
ented for the consideration of statesmen. 

"Germany is disposed to dismiss with indifference 
and even contempt all proposals for settling interna- 
tional differences by peaceful methods. Indeed, the Ger- 
man government seems to consider any such proposals 
as expressly directed against Germany's interests which, 
as they conceive, demand that her military power must 
inevitably be employed fov her national development 
and advancement through the subjugation and humilia- 
tion of other nations, and the appropriation of such of 


their possessions as she may find most useful for her 
purposes. This conception carries with it the ideal that 
in all the centuries to come, brute force shall be the 
highest right, that the most powerful nation shall be a 
law to itself, that its treaties and obligations may be put 
aside when necessity arises, and that the national will 
shall alone be the judge of that necessity. If all the 
teachings of Christianity and all the ideals of modern 
civilization point only to this result, mankind has not 
great reason to regard its ideals and standards as on a 
higher plane than those of the brute creation. Indeed 
one should then say that man was made a little lower 
than the brutes: 

'No more? A monster then, a dream, 
A discord. Dragons of the prime 
That tear each other in their slime, 
Were mellow music matched with him.' 

''Such ideals are not helpful to humanity; and the 
sooner they are dispelled and dismissed, the better for 
the nation which entertains them and the better for the 
world. If this war was necessary for that purpose, let 
us not regret that it came when it did. In this struggle 
against Prussian oligarchy and against its ideals, Can- 
ada in common with all the Empire is prepared to fight 
and intends to fight to the death. Reverses may come, 
sacrifices will be inevitable, there may be days of doubt 
and even of gloom; but the fortitude, the determination 
and the resourcefulness which did not fail the people of 
the Empire in the storm and peril of more than a century 
ago, and which have maintained the northern half of 
this continent as part of that empire, are still our com- 
mon inheritance, and will not fail us now." 

Major-General Hon. Sam Hughes 




18th January, 1915. 

Major-General the Hon. Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of 


To the Canadian Clubs of the Dominion, General 
Hughes attributed a great deal of the credit for the up- 
building of a sound patriotic sentiment or rather the 
organized and tangible expression and manifestation of 
such a sentiment throughout the length and breath of 
Canada. He felt that much of the success that had 
crowned recent efforts to raise troops in order to keep 
the old flag flying and maintain intact the principles of 
liberty for which the great British Empire stands, had 
been due to the conditions created in recent years by the 
Canadian Clubs. 

"The German menace has been known for many 
years. The design of the Germans aimed at the posses- 
sion of Denmark, Belgium, Holland and French Flanders 
as far as Calais, and the annexation by Austria of the 
Balkan States; so that the Austro-German dominions 
should form a mighty empire reaching from the shores 
of the North and Baltic Seas to the Aegean and the 
Euxine. All-powerful on land as Germany was, she 
would thus become all-powerful on the sea; and when 
this was carried out, her plan was to divide up Britain's 

"These were Germany's plans, and her ambition 
was to establish and impress the autocracy of Germany 
upon the free peoples of the world. Those of us who 
have come up under British institutions and have par- 
taken of the liberties which we under Britain's flag en- 
joy, have felt that it was our duty to take part in this 
great struggle; and when the call came, the armies of 
Canada did not hesitate. 


"War broke out early in early August; and on the 
night of the 7th of August the Prime Minister of Canada 
received an acceptance from the British Government of 
our offer of 20,000 men. Let me, gentlemen, say a word 
or two as to how that force was organized. I was notified 
from all parts of the country that we could not raise ten 
thousand men. I had offers from any number of windy 
gentlemen to go around the country and preach to the 
men their duty in the premises. I said 'No! One word 
is going forth to the boys. This war is for human liberty, 
to preserve the liberties won by our forefathers in Great 
Britain, and to smash the autocracry of Germany.' That 
was the only word issued, gentlemen; then we set to 
work. We had to buy our land at Valcartier. We had to 
make clothes for the men, the khaki uniforms they were 
to wear; we had even to make the cloth. We had to get 
the boots and the caps and the equipment; and all this 
after the outbreak of the war. We had to have the rifles 
in readiness for practice on our ranges three and a half 
miles long six times as long as any other range in the 
world where our boys were to fire nearly seven million 
rounds of ammunition, and finally march to the front 
the best-shooting 17 regiments that ever stood inside 

"We took the crops up, removed the fences, and laid 
in twelve miles of water mains. At the end of every com- 
pany line was a water tap and a shower-bath for the 
boys. We laid out that camp to our satisfaction 
whether we laid it out to the satisfaction of the general 
public, or not. Everything that human ingenuity could 
devise was done. I picked out the best men in each class 
that I could find. Sir William Price laid the water mains ; 
Mr. Lowe, one of those driving contractors who know 
how to expedite a job, I put him to work on the rifle 
range. Mr. Bain was put to remove the fences. The men I 
set to work on these jobs were men who knew how to 


drive and push; and everything went before them. We 
brought hundreds of trainloads of soldiers from all parts 
of the Dominion of Canada and, Sir, we had in two 
weeks at Valcartier, not 20,000 men, but 33,000! 

4 'At the end of six weeks, gentlemen, from the date 
of the arrival of the first men at Valcartier we had these 
33,000 boys ready to march to thirty-one large steamers 
docked at the City of Quebec, and sail by Gaspe out 
across the broad Atlantic the largest body of men that 
ever crossed the ocean at any period in the history of the 
world seventeen regiments of infantry! Well, they 
crossed the ocean, and arrived at the historic City of 
Plymouth. Plymouth people, and the men of Devon- 
shire, were wont to boast when I was there that this 
was the third great incident in their history. The first 
was when the British fleet sailed out from that port to 
meet the Spansh Armada; the second was the landing 
of William, Prince of Orange; and the third great event 
in the upbuilding and maintenance of human liberty was 
the coming of the contingent from Canada to assist in 
smashing the autocracy of Germany. 

"Gentlemen, I do not say it with any intention of 
flattery; but no part of the Dominion of Canada has 
turned out more men according to the population, or 
better men, than the City of Winnipeg. In General 
Steele, I recognize that Canada has one of the most 
magnificent officers in military service. It has been 
said that politics has played a part in the selection of 
commanders, and in the other phases of Canada's pre- 
paration for her part in this war. But I think General 
Steele is like the other Sam. We shut our eyes to 
politics. We do not fight as Tories and Liberals. Our 
boys are going to the front as Canadians, to show how 
they can fight at the Empire's need. What I will insist 
on, in choosing commanders, is the safety of the human 
souls entrusted to these leaders; and no man is going 


to have that great trust reposed in him, be his politics 
what they may, unless I have every confidence that that 
man is worthy to lead those men. 

"In regard to enlistment, I might say that the spirit 
evinced by the boys is magnificent. The first contin- 
gent over-ran by seven to eight thousand the number 
required; the second is already more than filled up; and 
the third is already more than filled wherever we have 
had an opportunity to enrol the men. I know the story 
of the Canadian boys in the past. I was in South Africa ; 
I have no fear now. They are going to the front but, 
sir, they are not all coming back. Germany is ready for 
this war. She has millions of rifles, and munitions of 
war to do her for three years of ceaseless fighting. She 
has a capacity for manufacturing more war material per 
day than all the rest of the world put together. Do not 
imagine that Germany is beaten, or that she will easily 
yield, or that, in driving her back from trench to trench, 
many a boy is not going down. If it takes ten contin- 
gents, one after the other, and ten times as many, the 
autocracy of Germany must be smashed. Britain has 
fought terrific struggles before. I would like to recall 
the old battle of Albuera, when after the British had 
faced three or four times their own number, the 
historian says: 'When the evening sun gilded the 
distant Sierras, fifteen hundred stern and un- 
daunted British soldiers stood victors on those 
bloody heights; all that remained of fifteen thous- 
and in the morning.' So future records of this great 
fight will show that Canada did her duty. Whether it 
costs forty or fifty or sixty per cent, of her men, the flag 
of liberty must flourish and the banner of autocracy 
come down." 

Mr. Joseph W. Flavelle 


llth February, 1915 

Mr. J. W. Flavelle, 
President National Trust Co., Toronto. 

As Mr. Flavelle was in London when war was de- 
clared, and also at the time when the various measures 
referred to in his address were adopted by the House of 
Commons, his remarks were of added interest to the 
large audience which gathered to hear him on a subject 
of such great and practical importance. After pointing 
out that the modern development of trade and finance 
has been possible only through world wide credit (based 
on confidence) the speaker showed in detail how it was 
the impairment of confidence incident to the delivery of 
the ultimatum of Austria-Hungary to Servia in July, 
1914, which produced the phenomena that so profoundly 
affected every financial centre the world over, before a 
shot had been fired, a life lost, or even war declared 
between any of the nations except Austria and Servia. 
So great was the disturbance and so fearful was the 
world of finance of disaster associated with the shrink- 
age in the value of securities that before a week had 
passed every stock exchange in the world was closed. 
The delicate and highly efficient machinery of credit 
was completely dislocated. Foreign remittances ceased. 
Foreign exchange (the instrument used in the settle- 
ment of international business) became non-negotiable, 
and every country was confronted with the necessity of 
meeting its obligations out of its own resources. 

"London, as the world's banker, and the world's 
clearing house, was the centre of the disturbance. The 
extent of her influence, and the commanding character 
of her position was the measure of her anxiety. London 
bankers realized that for them the storm centre was in 
the position of the great accepting houses and accepting 
banks, which by their endorsement of bills of exchange 
had made themselves responsible in the event of those 


upon whom they were drawn failing to honor their 
obligation, and inasmuch as foreign remittances had 
ceased, they knew that the accepting houses would be 
confronted with the necessity of meeting these bills for 
which they had made no preparation. You will realize 
the importance of this international currency expressed 
in bills of exchange, for which London accepting houses 
had made themselves responsible, when I indicate that 
the sum outstanding aggregated about 300,000,000 
pounds sterling (about $1,500,000,000) maturing at the 
rate of about 4,000,000 pounds sterling ($20,000,000) a 
day. The larger percentage of this exchange was on 
domestic account, the balance on behalf of foreign 
clients. You will realize the gravity of this balance 
when I indicate it is estimated that at any time during 
recent years the amount of outstanding acceptances in 
London on German account was for no less a sum than 
70,000,000 pounds sterling ($350,000,000), which if the 
Germans failed to cover, it would become necessary for 
the London accepting houses to meet the obligation. 

"On Saturday afternoon, the first of August, the 
bankers arranged with the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
to declare a partial moratorium covering bills of ex- 
change, explaining that it was necessary that they 
should secure a breathing spell, that they might deter- 
mine how to meet these obligations. All Saturday after- 
noon and evening, and all through Sunday the bankers 
met in conference only to find their confusion increased 
as they realized the magnitude of their problem. They 
were in agreement upon only one thing, namely that 
they must have time. Hence they sent a deputation to the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer asking that the bank holi- 
day which fell due on the following day would be ex- 
tended over Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday of that 

"While the bankers were considering what recom- 
mendations they would make to the Treasury Depart- 


ment, the Chancellor turned his attention to an entirely 
different subject. By a singular coincidence a select com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, which the year before 
had been directed to inquire into what action the nation 
would take to secure the continued service of its mer- 
chant marine in the event of war, reported to the House 
of Commons the week these difficulties reached their 
climax. With unerring instinct the Chancellor took 
that portion of the report dealing with insurance against 
the King's Enemies, incorporated it into a bill which 
passed both Houses of Parliament, and received the 
King's assent within twenty-four hours of the declara- 
tion of war, and within forty-eight hours you could go 
to a suite of rooms in the Hotel Holborn in the city, and 
you could come out of them with a slip of paper which 
had on it the statement that, in return for the premium 
paid, His Majesty's government held the holder free from 
loss which might be sustained by reason of the King's 
Enemies to the ship or cargo indicated upon the insur- 
ance receipt. Although we have been at war with the 
second greatest naval power in the world, there has 
practically not been a day pass since the declaration of 
war, that the ships of Great Britain have not sailed 
in every sea, carrying products to and from the Mother- 
land, and carrying the commerce incident to the great in- 
dustrial life of that country. 

"The bankers waited upon the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and asked for two things: 'Grant us a mora- 
torium from August 4th to September 4th upon all obli- 
gations incurred, contracts in force, and debts due prior 
to August 4th. Suspend the Bank Act, and authorize 
the governors of the Bank of England at their discretion 
to issue currency without its equivalent in gold.' In 
support of these two requests they stated: 'There is 
this great body of bills of exchange maturing due. We 
must secure time in which to prepare to meet this un- 


expected obligation. It is impossible to make payment 
as they mature. If such payment is required, it will 
mean the failure of many of the accepting houses with 
all the calamity incident to it. As regards the deposits 
which we hold, we want the right of contract on the part 
of the depositors to be set aside, we want the option to 
rest with the banks to determine how much of the de- 
posits they will pay, rather than the right to rest with the 
depositors to determine how much they will withdraw.' 
The reply which came from the Treasury Department, 
after they had counselled on the matter, was: 'We will 
grant the moratorium under certain limitations. We 
will not suspend the Bank Act, and we will not authorize 
the Bank of England to issue notes without their equiva- 
lent in gold, but the government of Great Britain will 
issue its own obligations in denominations of One Pound 
and Ten Shillings and make them legal tenders.' Very 
quickly over the community there passed that intangible 
thing we call 'confidence;' you cannot tell whence it 
comes or whither it goes, and on Friday morning when 
the banks re-opened for business, in place of great com- 
panies waiting outside the doors of the banks, eager as 
they had been on the previous Friday to withdraw their 
deposits, conditions were normal, with one exception 
everywhere over the Kingdom men who had gold 
brought it to the nearest bank and deposited it that the 
country might have the benefit of increased gold re- 

"The joint stock banks came to the Chancellor and 
said : 'Mr. Chancellor, you have listened to the powers 
that be, and you have granted a general moratorium. 
Look at our position. Ordinarily the most liquid of our 
resources are the loans which we hold against stock 
exchange securities. These are now frozen, and are 
unavailable, because the stock exchange is closed. 
Through the general moratorium you tell every man who 


owes us, 'You do not need to pay a penny until the 4th of 
September.' How are we to carry on the business of this 
country under these conditions?' The Treasury Depart- 
ment came back with this reply: 'You hold a billion 
sterling of deposits from the people of Great Britain, and 
it is through these deposits you have your liquid re- 
sources for carrying on the business of the country. To 
meet the situation you have indicated, the Treasury De- 
partment, on your application, will deposit with each 
of you a sum of the new government currency equivalent 
to one-fifth of your deposits. We will charge you for 
the amount you use during the time it is current with 
you 5 per cent, per annum.' At one stroke the Treasury 
Department placed at the disposal of the joint stock 
banks for the domestic trade of the country, a credit of 
200,000,000 pounds sterling ($1,000,000,000) and it 
settled immediately the question of the resources of the 
banks for the domestic requirements of the nation. It 
will interest you to know that the banks did not find it 
necessary to take advantage of this credit. The fact, 
however, that it was there and available for use lent the 
necessary confidence for the free transaction of business. 

"But there was still unsettled the much larger ques- 
tion : 'How are we to re-establish the foreign exchange 
market? How are we to provide, if merchandise comes 
to this country, or merchandise goes out of this country, 
a medium whereby settlements can be made?' for you 
must remember that bills of exchange had become as 
vital to the discharge of international obligations as the 
bank notes which you carry in your pocket are valuable 
for the discharge of your obligations day by day. 

"The Chancellor enquired of the joint stock banks: 
'Why are you not buying bills of exchange?' and the 
reply was obvious. 'There is no discount market. More- 
over, look at the body of pre-moratorium bills which we 
now have on hand. We want no more bills until some 


disposition is made of the stale paper now held by us.' 
To meet this situation the Treasury Department advised 
the joint stock banks 'Take your pre-moratorium bills 
to the Bank of England. We have arranged that they 
will discount any bill that they would have discounted 
prior to the war, moreover they will discount them with- 
out recourse, that is to say if the maker or acceptor of 
the bill does not pay, we will relieve you, the joint stock 
banks. We have instructed the Bank of England to re- 
lieve you from further responsibility in connection with 
these bills once you discount them. The government of 
Great Britain will assume all the loss the Bank of Eng- 
land may have in relation to these transactions.' 

"The joint stock banks came back to the Chancellor 
and said: 'True you have relieved us from responsi- 
bility for these pre-moratorium bills, but they still have 
to be paid. They are still accumulating against the 4th 
day of September. The accepting houses still have to 
meet their responsibility in relation to them. You ask 
us to buy new bills bearing the endorsement of the same 
accepting houses, and these new bills mature after the 
pre-moratorium bills. How are we to know whether 
these accepting houses will be in a position to meet their 
obligation when these bills mature due. You are asking 
us to do what no prudent banker should do, and we will 
not buy the bills.' 

"The Chancellor did not stop to reason with the 
bankers, or to say whether they were right or wrong. He 
was possessed by an absorbing passion that no matter 
what the obstacle he meant that business should go on 
and if he could not succeed one way he would another. 
Through counsel with his advisors he submitted this re- 
markable solution for the dead-lock through the Bank of 
England: 'Go to the accepting houses, tell them to 
collect every penny they can from their clients on ac- 
count of these pre-moratorium bills, and having col- 


lected it, deposit the amount with you. Tell them that, 
having done this, as these bills mature due you will pay 
them, and whatever balance there is between the amount 
they have deposited and the amount which you have 
paid, it will be a debt due to the government of Great 
Britain, for which we will not ask an accounting from 
the accepting houses until a year after the close of the 
war. Go to the joint stock banks, and tell them that 
through this proposal we have placed the accepting 
houses in the same credit as they enjoyed before the 
war, and that, therefore, their endorsement upon bills 
is as responsible as it was before the war. Now go and 
re-establish the foreign exchange market.* 

"This was the final of a series of acts performed by 
the Chancellor and the remarkable group of men identi- 
fied with the Treasury Department, assisted by the chief 
bankers in the Kingdom, whereby order was brought out 
of confusion, credit was re-established, and foreign exr 
change, so absolutely essential to the discharge of inter- 
national obligations, became current and negotiable. 
The world will probably never realize the debt it owes 
to the Treasury Department of Great Britain for re- 
establishing conditions under which commerce would be 
carried on, and confidence restored. 

"As there was some confusion immediately follow- 
ing the declaration of war as to the application of what 
was done in England to our position in Canada, it may 
serve a useful purpose to indicate the difference between 
a borrowing and a lending country, as illustrated by 
Canada and Great Britain, and the difference in the 
conditions and the remedies which will be applied under 
these diverse conditions. 

"If the British Isles, meeting a disturbance of 
world-wide character, for the time being experience 
unlooked-for complications because of their leadership 
in the world of finance, determine that it is inadvisable, 


as far as obligations between themselves are concerned, 
to delay payment for thirty days, or for ninety days, 
what difference does it make? They owe no one any- 
thing. They have no credit to sustain. They are a 
loaning country., not a borrowing country. 

"What is the position in Canada and I say it not 
to our shame, for we are a country in the making. Prac- 
.tically every dollar of our national and provincial debts 
is owed abroad, and the first claim upon the revenue 
of the country is the payment of interest and sinking 
fund on behalf of these borrowings all our railway 
enterprises, stocks and bonds alike, are practically own- 
ed outside the country, and the net earnings are distri- 
buted to foreign holders of the securities our mortgage 
business is made possible by the sale of sterling deben- 
tures and by the use of trust moneys sent to us from 
abroad. These borrowings mature at the rate of about 
$20,000,000 a year, and it will be the wisdom of our 
course as interpreted abroad by those who furnish these 
moneys that must determine whether it will be 
possible to renew them or whether payment will be de- 
manded. The major part of our municipal securities are 
in the hands of holders outside the country no incon- 
siderable amount of the capital used in our industrial 
enterprises, represented by bonds and preferred stocks, 
has been supplied from outside. 

"What, then, is the supreme duty of a borrowing 
country like Canada? What obligation rests upon legis- 
latures, parliaments and leaders in finance? Surely 
their first duty is to preserve the credit of the country, 
for it is our life blood. If, in holding such responsible 
relations, they are influenced in their action to give 
class legislation, in answer to private interests or pri- 
vate pressure, whatever may be its character, they are 
doing a grave injury to the credit of the country. 


"Probably there is not sufficient recognition of the 
obligation of this country to the Department of Finance 
at Ottawa, for the wisdom and courage with which they 
met the situation last August. It is probably not known 
that in those early days, in representative cities from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, men commenced to withdraw 
their deposits from the banks in gold, which they placed 
in safety deposit vaults. I have no doubt that some of 
the safety deposit vaults in this city have still in their 
vaults some of the gold which was put by at that time. 

"The Finance Minister, realizing the gravity of the 
situation, called the bankers to Ottawa for counsel. Some 
desired that a general moratorium should be declare^, 
some were fearful and said 'Do nothing.' The Minister 
had the good sense and judgment to hold his mind true 
to the chief responsibility which rested upon him to 
preserve the credit of the country, and the course which 
he selected and which he has followed consistently, to 
a remarkable extent steadied the whole country, and our 
credit at home and abroad has been sustained. The de- 
posits in the banks, upon which you and I as business 
men depend for the carrying on of our enterprises, have 
remained practically undisturbed. The banks were 
authorized to discharge their obligations by their own 
notes, thereby immediately stopping the drain of gold. 
The Minister took authority to advance legal tenders 
(government notes) to the banks if necessary, against 
approved securities which they would deposit with the 
Treasury Department in Ottawa. His action was less 
spectacular than that of the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
in Great Britain, because the field of his operations was 
comparatively narrow, but in its own field it was equally 
effective and equally courageous. 

"Before closing, I desire to say a word about banks 
I presume I would evoke your applause if I were to 
speak critically and severely of the banks. I have found 


that it does not make very much difference where I hap- 
pen to be, when I come to the service which the banks 
render there is a readiness to believe whatever the 
speaker may say, if it takes the form of a censure. 

"What is the position of the banker? He is the 
custodian of the major portion of the liquid resources of 
the country, with an obligation to keep them available 
for the requirements of the largest number of people 
in the country. In doing so he is bound by the principle 
to keep these resources liquid, in the character of loans 
made. There is a common fallacy that, if a man comes 
to his banker and presents unquestioned security, he 
should have the loan which he desires. It must, how- 
ever, be remembered that not only is the loan to be made 
upon unquestioned security, but the borrower should be 
able to satisfy the banker that it will be repaid within 
a reasonable time. There is not enough money in the 
hands of the bankers for every borrower in this country, 
but there is available sufficient to meet the borrowers 
served by the bankers, if discretion has been exercised 
by the bankers, so that maturing loans are promptly 
repaid and made available for the next borrower. If 
the banker is true to his duty, he will refuse to loan 
unless he can be reasonably assured that the loans will 
be sufficiently liquid to permit prompt repayment, so 
that someone else can have the use of the money for 
equally urgent requirements. 

"It is inevitable that, at such a time, there will be 
much real suffering in your city. The loss of money 
which you, as business men, or capitalists, or specula- 
tors, have made is of little consequence in contrast to 
the working man, who has lost not only his dividends 
but, temporarily at least, his capital, for all the capital 
he possesses is the work which he can do with his two 
hands, and being denied the opportunity of work, there 
is real suffering for him and for his family. 


"Long ago there came to the world, One whose 
mission it was to teach us the supreme duty of service 
to one another. He, Himself, set the example, to the 
point of laying down His life, and one who sought to 
interpret what He had done, writing to his friends, said 
this: 'He was rich, and yet for our sakes He became 
poor, that we, through His poverty might be made rich.' 
And, gentlemen, speaking in the capital city of the West, 
of which you and we are so justly proud, I venture to 
suggest in this time of discipline and anxiety, that your 
first consideration should be, not the burdens which you 
have to bear, but the burden of the other man, which is 
heavier than he is able to bear." 


25th February, 1915 

Sir Johnson Forbes-Robertson 

"Gentlemen of the Canadian Club, I purpose to-day, 
I am ashamed to say, to be a beggar. I want to interest 
you in a particular charity, which I think when I have 
explained, you will consider as meriting all encourage- 
ment possible. I do not think I need to say how much 
we owe to that great little country, Belgium. We have 
got to take its burdens on our shoulders, and we British 
gladly and proudly take it. We have got to re-establish 
this people who have laid down their lives, whose blood 
has smothered the roads and rivers because of a great 

"Let me describe to you this particular charity in 
the interest of which I have bespoken your assistance. 
A woman has bought a barge in Calais, in which she is 
going down the canals. She is at present on that barge 
distributing food to the starving peasantry. Nothing 
can describe, she says, the horrors that she has witness- 
ed. Actual starvation! Not only did the people have 
no food, but they had no water. The rivers were pollu- 
ted. As for coal or flour, of course there was nothing. 
Well, this charity consists in the distribution of food 
and clothing. She this woman I have mentioned 
has a place at Folkestone, where the money and clothing 
are handed to two people, and forwarded to her from 
there. All the stuff is put straight on the barge. Her 
base in Flanders varies from week to week, according to 
circumstances. You can take it from me that every 
penny that is sent to this woman will be used for food 
and clothing. Now, this woman, who has a luxurious 
home outside London, in Hertfordshire; who likes lux- 

Sir Johnson Forbes-Robertson 


ury, good food, soft beds she has turned the key in the 
front door of that house, and has willingly given herself 
up to conditions of the most trying nature. She is a 
connection of mine, this woman, a connection by mar- 
riage. Her name is Maxine Elliott (applause). Gentle- 
men, I shall take care that Maxine Elliott knows how 
her name has been received in this distant country. My 
wife will glady acknowledge any contribution, however 
small, if sent to 22 Bedford Square, West Central, Lon- 

"It is not easy for me, who am of the Old Country, 
to speak in level tones when I think of Canada's present 
rallying to the Empire's cause when I pass through 
your vast continent and see on every hand the warlike 
preparations and the magnificent material that you are 
sending over when I think of the sacrifices made by 
mothers, daughters, wives when I think of the way in 
which the manhood of your country has responded to the 
call. As I say, I cannot approach the subject without 
deep emotion; and when you suffer from deep emotion, 
brought about by a great exhibition of loyalty on the 
part of a whole people, gentlemen, then your tongue 
thickens and your words refuse to come from your 
mouth. This is something that the Old Country thor- 
oughly appreciates, thoroughly realizes; and, horrible 
as this war is, when it is over it is going to bring us 
closer together. Gentlemen, I recognize this, and I 
know that it must be. I know that the Mother Country 
must receive voice and counsel from her children, and 
particularly from the beautiful eldest daughter, Canada. 
I know that the time will not be long when the Old 
Country must see the necessity of taking Canada into 
her serious deliberations upon imperial things. 

"It is not by measures or laws, or indifference, or 
force, or bullying, that a people can be kept together. 
It is only by thorough understanding, and by love and 


sweet reasonableness. These are the elements, gentle- 
men, that are going to bind us all together. We are 
bound now by this terrible war. We learn from each 
other, gentlemen. Canada is learning from England, 
and England from Canada. We are, I say, brought to- 
gether by this terrible war closely knit, firmly grouped 
together, under our sacred flag!" 


12th March, 1915 

Dr. J. G. Rutherford, 

Superintendent of Agriculture and Animal Industry, 

Natural Resources Department, Canadian 

Pacific Railway. 

''We have in the Canadian West," said Dr. Ruther- 
ford in opening his address, "been in the habit of con- 
sidering the city of primary importance and agriculture 
as merely a factor in human progress. Farming is not 
one of the minor things. If it were not for the farm 
and the farmer, we would not have any cities, banks, 
factories, financial institutions, or railways, nothing. 
The young people do not seem to realize that and quite 
a lot of the old ones do not. 

"You are just as dependent on the farmer in this 
city, this big, solid, substantial city, as the merchant 
who has his little general store in the small railway 
hamlet. All the prosperity that has come to the mer- 
chants and professional men and others of Winnipeg 
has depended and will depend upon the prosperity of 
the man on the western farm. 

"Now why is it that we as a nation have failed so 
signally in grasping this great truth? I do not know 
any other country in the world and I know quite a 
few that has made such a mess of things in this regard 
as Canada has done. It is true that we grow grain; 
but as far as the development of agriculture in this coun- 
try is concerned, we are doing but little. Now, looking 
back all through history, you can find no country in 
which any single crop has ever secured permanent pros- 
perity for that country. In every case, the single crop 


spells decadence and the ruin of agriculture. It is quite 
as true in regard to one kind of grain as it is in regard to 
another quite as true in regard to wheat as to any 
other kind of grain. 

"We have been using up the natural resources of 
this country, and sooner or later we will come to the 
end, just like drawing a bank account without making 
any deposits, and finally having cheques returned mark- 
ed 'n.s.f.' That is what has happened to the farmer in 
every country in the world that stuck to the single crop ; 
and that is what will happen to us unless we develop 
along the proper lines. 

"We have been importing to this country enormous 
quantities of food beef, mutton, and until very recent- 
ly, pork. This year we have 2,050,000 sheep. In 1907 
we had 2,750,000 a drop of three-quarters of a million 
in the last seven years, and we live in the great agri- 
cultural country of Canada. 

"Now take cattle: In 1907, as closely as we can 
reach it, there were about 7,100,000 head of cattle in 
Canada; in 1914, 6,036,000. In other words, we dropped 
practically a million head of cattle in that period. In 
the United States the supply of beef cattle in the decade 
between 1900 and 1910 dropped 21 per cent, while dur- 
ing the same period the meat-eating population of the 
United States increased 31 per cent. Carefully figured 
out by an expert, that shows a decrease in the per capita 
supply of beef in the United States of 23 per cent. 

"Now, what is the immediate reason? I do not be- 
lieve our producers get the prices they ought to be get- 
ting. The price to consumers of meats of all kinds in 
Great Britain at the present time is about the same as 
it is here in Canada. But there is a great difference in 
the price the farmer gets for his beef. In the Old Coun- 
try at the present time of course there has been a 


certain rise on account of the war the farmer is getting 
about ninepence a pound live weight for his finished 
beef. But ever since I can remember, he has been get- 
ting twelve, thirteen and fourteen cents (sevenpence) 
a pound for his beef. Now, what do our people get? 
Last year, in 1914, Toronto paid $7.67 per hundred 
pounds; Montreal $6.62 per hundred pounds; Calgary 
$6.94; Winnipeg $6.07. That is, for live cattle. Now 
the retail price of sirloin steak in Montreal was 22.7 
cents per pound; Regina 28; Calgary 22.8; Winnipeg 
26.8. That is the rate per pound you pay for sirloin 
steak; and compare that with the price I have just 
quoted you, that the farmer gets for his cattle. Now, 
for chuck ordinary meat the prices were: Montreal, 
16 cents; Regina, 18.4; Calgary, 15; Winnipeg, 18.4 
and the farmer here got $6.07 per hundred pounds for 
his beef. Now, while it is true that labor is higher, it is 
true that feed is very much cheaper here than in the Old 
Country. And while the qualtiy of Old Country beef 
may be a little better, still the prices quoted are for 
the best quality on the butcher's block. 

"What does the upbuilding of the cattle industry 
mean to you self-satisfied, prosperous, somewhat indif- 
ferent business men in this great city? Do you know 
that half the financial activities in Chicago over 50 per 
cent, of the money business of Chicago is connected 
with the Union Stock Yards there? Do you know that 
in this city of Winnipeg, on the Red River, you have got 
another market which ought to occupy the same position 
as the big market I mentioned does to Chicago, and in 
the comparatively near future, too? Do you know that 
you have here, with these great transcontinental rail- 
roads running through Winnipeg as they do, the great 
clearing-house for the live stock trade of all this area 
between the Red River and the Rockies? It is coming 


to you; it cannot help it; because this country has got 
to be a live stock country. 

"Now, how are you going to bring this about? You 
must understand that the farmer, out on the land by 
himself, is the most individualistic individual you ever 
saw. I made my living for many years among the farm- 
ers, going from one to another; and I tell you, they want 
assistance. Not cheap advice! They want co-opera- 
tion. You have got to get together. Also let us teach 
our young men and women that farming is interesting. 
Our smart newspaper lads turn up their noses at the 
farmers, calling them rubes and hayseeds when they 
meet them on the streets. Let them realize that the 
farmer is the man whose foot is on the pedal that keeps 
the machine of commerce running. Let us help him 

"A long time ago, gentlemen, the King of Brobdig- 
nag said to Gulliver: 'The man who can make two ears 
of corn or two blades of grass grow on a spot of ground 
where only one grew before, will deserve better of man- 
kind and do more service to his country than the whole 
race of politicians put together." 




14th April, 1915 

Mr. J. W. Dafoe, 
Editor-in-Chief, "Manitoba Free Press." 

Public opinion was defined by the speaker, in open- 
ing his address, as the sum of the opinion of the public, 
brought about by interchange of views, dissemination of 
knowledge, and many other factors, including the 
churches, the schools, the universities and the press. 
In our country, public opinion is the real governor. 
And once public opinion manifests itself unmistakably, 
it registers its decision. The successful public man is 
not so much the leader of public opinion as its inter- 

"Now, the court of public opinion is in session all 
the time. From time to time it hands out its decisions, 
and those decisions are usually final. Questions about 
which there is deep controversy, even to the point of 
the shedding of blood, become settled and are accepted 
by the whole community as a class, when these decisions 
are issued. Those of us who are familiar with British 
constitutional history will remember many cases where 
questions have been settled this way. For instance, we 
got rid, over two hundred years ago, by force of public 
opinion, of the doctrine of the divine right of kings. 
We have in the same manner established the quesiton 
of the propriety of responsible government, of the 
supremacy of the civil over military power, and such 
other questions as the amelioration of the old penal 
laws, and the abolition of slavery, the division of church 
and state, and the right of the state to control educa- 
tion. These are all closed questions, and anyone who 
watches the court of public opinion closely, knows when 



it is getting ready to hand out further decisions, as, 
for instance, in the case of the liquor business and the 
place women are to play in the future national life of 
our country. 

"The world has of late months been puzzling over 
the German phenomenon, and thoughtful observers 
have come to this conclusion that the agencies for 
public information in Germany were not free. The 
churches were not free, the universities were not free, 
the press was not free; and, what was most tragic of 
all, they did not want to be free. They accepted a cer- 
tain formula, and built their system upon that. That 
formula was the conception of a state remote from the 
people, apart from the people, imposing its will upon 
the people; and free, as Treitschke and Bernhardi im- 
pressed upon their readers, from all the moral restraints 
which have been imposed by the association of mankind 
internationally with one another. The worship of this 
mystical state in Germany has created a conception in 
which it is practically a tribal God, whose religion is 
war, whose high-priest is the Kaiser, and whose priest- 
hood is the soldiery. The German system of education 
helped to foster this idea; and thus the whole highly- 
organized industrial community was simply part of a 
Juggernaut designed to roll over the liberties of the 
world. Now, it is not probable that in a British com- 
munity anything like that could have happened; be- 
cause our agencies of public information are free, and 
it is our unrelaxing business and aim to see that they 
remain free. They will remain free, while we hold 
firmly to the conception of a democratic state, a state 
which has no powers except those derived from the 
people, no functions except to serve the people; and 
which is subject, even as every individual man is sub- 
ject, to the moral law of the people. But if public opin- 
ion is slack, ill-formed or indifferent, you have inevi- 



tably with our system of government, it is bound to 
happen under these conditions you have inevitably a 
government of special interests, corrupted into a form 
of autocracy. 

"Now, what are the functions of the press in the 
matter of public information? The newspaper acts 
upon public opinion in many ways. It acts upon it 
directly by assertion; and it acts upon it indirectly, be- 
cause it is the medium through which news and views 
are presented. And it is in the latter capacity that the 
newspaper exercises its greatest influence more so, 
perhaps, because it acts insensibly. For the newspaper 
is not, nowadays, an oracle. The attitude of the average 
man on editorials is this: If he agrees with the writer 
of the editorial, it is good; if he does not agree, he 
wonders why the paper admits such nonsense in its 
columns. However, the general public are not particu- 
larly censorious about the editorial page. They recog- 
nize, no doubt, that this is our own little pasture, where 
we may browse comparatively unmolested. It is as to 
the conduct of the news columns that the public has 
established a right of censure, which it exercises 
through all available devices of communication the 
telephone, the telegraph, the mails, and personal calls. 

"The newspaper is not a business, but a direct pro- 
duct of human intercourse. Every newspaper has a cer- 
tain atmosphere, certain conditions which dictate its 
policy. The newspaper which I conduct is to-day large- 
ly and in many respects guided by the spirit of the man 
who founded and edited it for a great many years. That 
is true of a great many newspapers. The actual pro- 
duction of the newspaper is, if you will, a business; but 
these are elements in the production of a newspaper 
which raise it to the eminence of an art. 

"To suppress news which its readers are entitled 
to have, or to color such news so as to give a wrong 


impression, is, from its own point of view, very bad busi- 
ness for a newspaper; because no newspaper can de- 
ceive the public and live, unless there are interests be- 
hind it which want it to live for the purpose of deceiving 
the public. 

"Now, you have got to have diversified newspapers 
simply because, as I have pointed out, newspapers are 
made by the man behind them. Some newspapers stand 
for a certain policy, a certain line of thought; others 
are paid organs of certain sects or sections of the com- 
munity. These conditions are bound to affect the pre- 
sentation, the collection, the treatment of news. The 
best illustration is afforded by the great English news- 
papers. The newspapers of London represent different 
shades or schools of political thought; the "Chronicle," 
for instance, stands for the Imperialistic school; the 
"News" is Radical throughout; in between the two you 
have the "Westminster Gazette," in which Mr. Spender 
writes those beautiful articles, in most excellent prose, 
pointing out that anything the present government does 
is right. It is desirable that a newspaper should stand 
upon its own bottom, serve faithfully its section of the 
community, and not permit, in order to increase its cir- 
culation unduly, any paltering with facts. I can only 
say, in conclusion, that after an experience of thirty 
years in Canadian journalism, I think without throw- 
ing any bouquets that upon the whole Canadian people 
have good reason to be satisfied with the service of the 
press of Canada." 

Chancellor A. L. McCrimmon, LL.D 


13th May, 1915 

A. L. McCrimmon, LL.D., 
Chancellor McMaster University, Toronto. 

"Righteousness and truth make the only foundation 
which can perpetuate a nation's life. Sooner or later 
any sentiment of injustice will filter down from the lead- 
ers to the people and undermine the stability of the 
nation's existence." 

The above was one of the telling sentences with 
which Dr. McCrimmon opened his address. He stated 
that from certain revealed facts which have come to us, 
we now know the Germans much better than we did a 
few months ago. All the major factors of a nation's life 
are represented in the trend of her policies and we need 
to watch them all and valuate them in order to obtain a 
proper result. The immorality of the Prussian policy 
has been revealed, an immorality which had a back- 
ground from Frederick the Great. In a sentence, it is 
"Might over right." This has been preserved fairly well 
down through the German chancellories. The German 
government asks not what is right, but rather, what is 

The speaker then reviewed the outbreak of the war 
and its conduct in order to illustrate his point. He 
maintained that an autocratic government, such as the 
Prussian, is incompetent to interpret rightfully the in- 
stitution of democracy. The German people, notwith- 
standing their elaborate spy system, do not possess those 
bonds of the spirit which are the most potent in every 
department of life. 

"Mechanism enthrals spontaneity," held the speak- 
er. He said that the life of Germany had been for the 
advancement of a machine in itself rather than that a 
machine should be employed for the advancement of 


life. Speaking on this theme, Dr. McCrimmon asserted 
that we had been a little too obsequious in bowing down 
to German methods of education. He maintained that 
the machine should not be allowed to run the life, 
whether it be in economics or in politics. 

The speaker expanded on the revelation of the dis- 
tinctive elements in the genius of the two empires 
the British and the German. He cited the widely diver- 
gent attitudes assumed by the respective statesmen. 
"The different attitudes assumed by the statesmen 
of the two empires before their parliaments, are indi- 
cative of the fundamental difference in the genius of 
the two people." He then spoke of the way in which 
Premier Asquith referred to the treaty obligation and 
the way in which Chancellor von Bethman Holweg re- 
ferred to ethics of necessity and the violation of inter- 
national law. He referred to the literary productions 
of the war and the great difference manifested between 
them, instancing Germany's "Hymn of Hate" as the 
paramount example of the spirit in that country against 
England. One lesson from this was that we, as a people, 
should keep our heads and not allow a spirit of hatred 
to render injustice to the German contingent in our own 



19th May, 1915 

Dr. Charles Sarolea 

Dr. Charles Sarolea, Editor-in-chief, "Everyman," 

With evident depth of feeling, Dr. Sarolea reminded 
his hearers that, apart from the economic and political 
tie which is bound to be closer in the near future, Canada 
and Belgium will be drawn together by bonds entirely in- 
dissoluble. For the last few months, for the forthcom- 
ing months, Canadians and Belgians will have fought, 
will fight, together, upon the same battlefields, in the 
same sacred cause; and when this war is over, for 
generations to come, thousands of Canadian patriots, 
Canadian citizens will repair to Belgium, to the marshes 
and morasses of Flanders, to visit the sacred spots where 
Canadian heroes died in the cause of civilization. "We 
are too much inclined to think of the sufferings of Bel- 
gium in terms of the past: we ought to think of those 
sufferings in terms of the future. Belgium will be kept 
by Germany almost until the end of the war; for, once 
Belgium is evacuated, the war will be over. But that 
will be a tremendous task; and in the process of driving 
out the Germans, every city of Belgium that still stands, 
from Antwerp to Brussels and from Brussels to Namur 
and Liege, will have to be destroyed. And I am not sure 
that even when the war is over, when victory crowns 
our armies all over Europe I am not sure if, even then, 
the sufferings of Belgium will be over. 

"For you will have to keep in mind the peculiar posi- 
tion of Belgium. Before this war Germany was the 
hinterland of Belgium. Belgium economically was in 
dependence upon Germany. Antwerp had almost be- 
come a German town. The prosperity of Belgium is 
literally bound up with the commercial prosperity of 
Germany; and the economic tragedy of the near future 
consists in this: That every blow aimed at the prosperity 


of Germany will be indirectly a blow aimed at the com- 
me; cial prosperity and expansion of Belgium. And yet 
we are quite prepared to suffer whatever may happen, 
whatever must happen, in order to shake off our close 
economic dependency upon Germany. We are deter- 
mined in Belgium to keep out the German. It is our 
one political aim to-day to be able to gain prosperity 
for our ruined nation with the help mainly of Great 
Britain and the British Empire. 

"The mystery of this war consists precisely in this 
that a great crime has been committed by a great na- 
tion, possessed of noble virtues, and surrounded by the 
blessings of its great achievements. How shall we ex- 
plain this mystery? Gentlemen, I have a very simple 
explanation. I am going to try to submit it to you. In 
this war we are up against a nation which is politically 
insane. There are in the history of nations those col- 
lective manias which, century after century, cause the 
greatest historic catastrophes. Sometimes these col- 
lective manias take the form of treaty rights, race 
rights. Sometimes they result in religious wars, some- 
times in civil wars. Again and again we find that the 
accumulated effect of these collective manias sweeps 
whole countries. 

"Now, let us briefly consider what this progressive 
paranoia of the German people consists of. What are 
the characteristic phases which mark an attack of luna- 
cy in an individual case? It generally starts with that 
anti-social vice, pride, inflated into megalomania. Any- 
body who has entered a lunatic asylum knows that the 
lunatic first believes he is the occupant of some exalted 
position, that he is an emperor, a king, or a president. 
He feels the need of impressing the people around him 
that he is an exalted personage; and when he finds that 
the people around him refuse to accept this presentation 
of himself, the megalomaniac becomes inevitably pos- 



sessed of the delirium of persecution and imagines that 
there is a conspiracy of the community against him. 
The madman will then become the victim of the delirium 
of violence, homicidal mania; and then, after he has 
vented his rage against the people who have persecuted 
him, who have refused to recognize his supreme great- 
ness, the madman suffers from a reaction of depression 
and melancholia; and when that fourth stage in the 
paranoiac goes far enough, then comes the culminating 
phase of suicidal mania. 

"Now, we will notice that every detail of these pro- 
gressive stages of paranoia, of individual insanity, af- 
fects the German nation. The German madness started 
with a vast national imperial megalomania. 'We are the 
salt of the earth.' they said; 'we are the chosen people; 
we are the supreme race. The French are corrupt; the 
British effete; the Russians servile. We alone are the 
supreme men; and Prussia alone is the super-state'. 

"Of course, the rest of the world has not accepted 
the Germans at their own valuation. They have re- 
fused to believe that the Germans were the supreme 
race. And then the Germans, with that characteristic 
of the insane man, have assumed that a systematic per- 
secution of the German nation was afoot, a conspiracy 
to keep the German people from taking their rightful 
place in the sun, to withhold from them due recognition. 
So the Germans, after a time, having suffered for a 
generation from the delirium of greatness, started to 
suffer from the delirium of persecution; and when that 
delirium of persecution had obsessed them long enough, 
having during that period organized themselves into a 
military state, they became determined to avenge them- 
selves against their Anglo-Saxon persecutors; and then, 
after the megalomania and the mania of persecution, 
came the homicidal mania. The whole nation is pos- 


sessed with the homicidal mania, and is prepared to 
fight the whole world, if necessary. 

"As I said to you, however, in the evolution of in- 
sanity after action always comes reaction, and after 
the delirium of violence there come depressions and 
melancholia, and after melancholia there comes the 
suicidal mania. I would not like to attempt to prophesy 
what is going to happen within the next few months. 
When you have to deal with a madman, you never can 
foretell exactly what is going to take place; but I do 
think, in this case, we can foretell pretty safely that 
after this orgy of murder, after this terrific outburst of 
homicidal mania, there will come the inevitable reaction 
depression, culminating in political suicide. I feel 
pretty certain that one of the factors in ending this war 
certainly will be a most satisfactory one that the Ger- 
man people, after having turned their impotent rage 
against the whole civilized world, will turn that rage 
against themselves, and this war of nations will end in 
a German revolution. At present I am afraid there are 
not many indications of any reaction, of any abatement 
in the homicidal mania of the Teutonic hordes; and I 
am afraid the process is not going to be quite as speedy 
as we could wish. As I said, we still have a great task 
before us. 

"The Belgian people are quite aware of all that is 
still to come. The Belgian people know that until the 
end of the war Belgium will remain not merely under 
the heel of the conqueror, but in the grip of a reign 
of terror, in the grip of famine; and it seems to me the 
clear duty of the other nations to try and assist Belgium 
in her plight. She will have to be assisted until the 
end. Remember that to-day we have a king of whom 
we are very proud, that king to-day is a king without a 
temporal kingdom. There is no government in Belgium 
except the administration of the tyrant. The Belgians 


are an orphaned nation. Help must come from the out- 
side food for the starving people, tending of the wound- 
ed, ambulances for the work of mercy; for these, Bel- 
gium must appeal to the charity of outside nations. 
Great Britain, and the whole of the British Empire, in 
fact, have nobly undertaken to discharge that voluntary 
duty. You will not take it amiss if I beg to remind you 
that until the end that sacred duty will have to be kept 
in mind. Unless you come to their assistance, there is 
nobody else to help the suffering Belgian people." 


30th June, 1915 

N. W. Rowell, K.C., M.P.P., Leader of the Opposition 
Ontario Legislature. 

Mr. Rowell remarked on rising to address the mem- 
bers of the Club, "As the years pass, we will hear less 
and less talk of the east and west of Canada. There will 
be one Canada, so referred to; and not only will the 
provinces of our Dominion be drawn closer together, 
but all parts of the Empire will be knit close by our 
sympathies and sacrifices. 

"Germany, industrially and politically, has for years 
been virtually organized on a war basis. It only required 
the word of the war lord to set the whole nation ablaze 
as one man. That gave Germany a tremendous advant- 
age in the intial stages of the conflict. Germany, under 
normal conditions had an iron and steel production and 
plant equal to that of Prance and Great Britain com- 
bined. Then, by her conquest of Belgium, she obtained 
control of the industrial centres of Belgium and North- 
ern Prance, where 75 per cent of the iron and steel 
plants of those countries are located. When you con- 
sider her original organization and capacity, and then 
consider how greatly this was increased by her occupa- 
tion of the districts I have mentioned, you can perhaps 
form some idea of the vastness of Germany's equip- 

"Now, our Empire, Great Britain, was organized on 
a peace basis. In order that she might measure up to 
the exigencies of the conflict in which she has engaged, 
it was necessary to reorganize her social, her industrial, 
her military life, practically from the ground up. And 
so, by Lloyd-George, Great Britain is being reorganized 

Newton Wesley Rowell, K.C. 



industrially, even as Lord Kitchener is reorganizing her 
from a military standpoint; so that she may be able, 
under the great demand for war material and supplies, 
to secure the maximum output in the minimum of time. 

"Now, what is our duty in regard to Canada? If 
ever there was a time when Canada needed a strong 
and constructive leadership, it is to-day. The people 
of Canada will cordially support the government in tak- 
ing the most vigorous and comprehensive action to en- 
able us to do our full share. When in Great Britain they 
are calling men out of the trenches to man their fac- 
tories; when women are leaving their homes and boys 
their schools, to produce munitions, surely the privilege 
and responsibility rests with us to see that idle or only 
partially busy factories and idle workmen are permitted 
to help save the Empire in her hour of need. Our whole 
Empire should be so organized that we are all working 
together as one to forward the great object in view the 
preservation of the liberty of the people. 

"For us, this conflict largely resolves itself into a 
conflict between Great Britain and Germany. Discuss- 
ing it from that standpoint, I do not underestimate the 
great service in the cause of the Allies rendered by 
Belgium, France, Russia, Servia and Italy. I said that 
Germany was organized on a war basis. Why? Because 
military despotism is the dominant note in the political 
life of Germany. Militarism stands for domination by 
the power of the sword, and its watchword is 'Might 
is the supreme right.' On the other hand, democracy, 
represented by Great Britain, has for its ideals human 
liberty, free government, and equal justice to all. Its 
watchword is 'Right is greater than might.' Thus, we 
are to-day engaged in a life-and-death struggle with 
military despotism, as represented by Germany. 

"For more than a century in Germany itself, these 
two forces, militarism and democracy, have been 


struggling for the mastery. In 1848 a great wave of 
democracy swept over Germany, and so terrified the 
German rulers that they granted in that year constitu- 
tions to the respective states; and from 1848 to 1862, 
they had a measure of parliamentary government. But 
then came Bismarck's chancellorship and absolutism 
again prevailed. If democracy had triumphed in 1862, 
I believe we would have been saved this world war. 
From 1862 down to the present date, absolutism, based 
on Prussian militarism, has been steadily increasing its 
power and influence, not only in Prussia, but throughout 
the other states that now make up united Germany. To- 
day Prussian militarism is dominant and resistless 
within the whole German empire, and is seeking to make 
itself dominant and resistless throughout the world. 

"Since 1862, the policy pursued by the governments 
of Prussia and Germany in combating the democratic 
movement has passed through two phases. The first 
was the policy of repression followed by Bismarck, who 
punished and proscribed the leaders of the democratic 
movement, and the second the policy to undermine the 
strength of the social democratic movement by an ag- 
gressive national policy. Prince von Buelow said that 
it was essential to the life of the monarchy and the 
state that the Social Democratic movement be defeated. 
In pursuance of this policy, the German government 
sought to undermine the power of the democratic move- 
ment by educating the German people through the vari- 
ous institutions to accept the government's ideals, 
which could be summed in saying that 'world empire is 
the rightful destiny of the German people.' The success 
of that policy we find expressed in the present war. 

"Now, what has been our own history? From that 
day at Runnymede when the barons wrung the signature 
to Magna Charta from the unwilling pen of King John, 
British history has been the history of the gradual 


triumph of the rights and liberties of its people. Crom- 
well and his Ironsides disposed forever of the question 
of the divine right of kings of England. The democratic 
movement has grown with the growth of the British 
Empire; so that to-day, in every British dependency 
throughout the world, you will find the citizens ready to 
fight for the preservation of their freedom and the main- 
tenance of free British institutions, as long as they have 
a son left to fight or a dollar to spend. 

"We have learned not only how to govern ourselves, 
but how to apply the principles of freedom to our world- 
wide empire. In Germany the military power is 
supreme; in Britain the civil power is supreme. The 
pathway to liberty for the German people, the only 
pathway to liberty for the German people, lies in the 
defeat and overthrow of the present Germany, governed 
by a military democracy. And for us, the only way we 
can save the liberty we now enjoy, is by seeing to it that 
the overthrow is complete. The whole history of this 
war, from the violation of Belgium's neutrality to the 
sinking of the Lusitania, is the history of what an un- 
checked military autocracy means to the people or 
peoples who may be subjected to it. Similar scenes 
would be enacted in Canada, if the Germans should ever 
be in a position to attack and over-run the Dominion 
The supremacy of the civil power is one of the cardinal 
principles of government in Great Britain. 

"It is said there are two tests of democracy first, 
its capacity for management of its national power and 
resources (we might have done better than we have in 
this respect) ; and second, its capacity for sacrifice in 
hours of national emergency. While we appreciate what 
Canada has already done, it is well for us to bear in mind 
how small relatively is the sacrifice we have made, com- 
pared with that made by the people of the Mother 
Country. According to the best information one can 


secure, Great Britain has under arms to-day, either at 
the front or in training, three millions of men. If we 
in Canada had the same number in proportion to our 
population, we would have 500,000. I, for one I have 
said it ever since the war opened, and I repeat it again 
to-day cannot see why we in Canada in proportion to 
our numbers should not give just as many men as the 
Mother Country. I am constrained to think although 
I regret to be compelled to think it that, great as is 
the sacrifice that has already been made, we are only at 
the commencement. We must put into this fight every 
ounce of our strength, in order to make sure of victory. 

"It is fitting that at this Canadian Club one should 
pay a tribute to the valiant men from Canada who have 
died that the Empire might live. They died for us, and 
for each of us, and for every lover of human liberty the 
world over. They are worthy of Canada; all nations 
join in paying that tribute to their memory. A much 
more searching question for you and me is this, 'Are we 
worthy of them?' Does their death, which we mourn, 
and the sympathy which we extend to the ones who are 
bereft, inspire us with a new and stronger resolve and 
with a nobler faith and passion, that by all the power 
and strength that in us lie, we will take up the task they 
have laid down, having given their all for its accom- 
plishment, and carry it through to a successful con- 

"I venture to hope that one of the early acts of the 
new national administration at Westminster will be to 
invite the premiers or other representatives of the 
governments of all the dominions to meet in London 
for a conference on this vital issue. I am sure every 
portion of the empire would cheerfully and gladly re- 
spond to the united appeal of the free nations of the 
empire. And what a splendid illustration and demon- 
stration it would be at this hour of the solidarity as well 


as the flexibility of our free institutions, and the loyalty 
which springs from liberty. What a demonstration it 
would be of the determination of the free democracies 
of the empire to combine in the performance of the Em- 
pire's task and to maintain for democracy and free 
government their right to a place on the earth. 

"Just as our brave men have mingled their blood on 
the soil of Belgium that we may maintain our freedom, 
so men of all classes and races and creeds in this country 
will unite in one holy and common resolve, and say To 
the last man and the last dollar, Canada is in this fight 
to see it through/ Democracy is now at its testing point. 
If it fails, autocracy triumphs. But it will not fail. From 
all parts of the Empire, from every corner of it, will go 
forth the solemn pledge that the British nation will not 
cease this struggle while she has a man left alive or a 
penny to spend." 

Remarks by Major (now Lt.-Colonel J. Kirkcaldy) 
of Brandon 

Following the address of Mr. Rowell, Major Kirk- 
caldy of Brandon, introduced by Lt.-Col. J. B. Mitchell, 
expressed his appreciation of the address just given. He 
stated that he had been privileged to be associ- 
ated with the Canadians who had gone to the front in 
defence of the Empire. "I may say that a great deal was 
expected of the Canadians, and they have amply fulfilled 
all expectations. They even surpassed themselves. It 
has been conceded that there are not any better fighters 
in the Empire to-day than those comprising the Cana- 
dian contingents. I am certain from what I have seen 
that the second contingent will at least equal the first, 
when it gets abroad. 

"I thank you for the encouragement you have given 
me. I am pleased to be back, and will be greatly honored 


in being given charge of a newly-organized regiment, to 
drill it in such tactics as are practised at the front; and 
will be pleased to take it back to the field of battle, to 
assist our Empire in this war and add some new pages 
to the history of Canada, telling of the way the Canadian 
contingents conducted themselves in the world's great- 
est conflict." 

Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P. 




3rd September, 1915 

Colonel J. A. Currie, M.P., Commandant of the 48th 

Highland Battalion of the Canadian 

Expeditionary Force. 

In remarking upon the fact that the Minister of 
Militia had cabled him to come to Canada to help in re- 
cruiting, Colonel Currie stated that he thought there was 
no better way to start work to this end than to tell some- 
thing of how Canadians had behaved in Flanders; not 
only the native-born Canadians, those sons of the hardy 
pioneers who have made our Dominion, but also those 
from other countries who have come to Canada and have 
become fully qualified Canadians and have gone forth 
with their Canadian fellow-citizens to fight the Empire's 

"The men you have sent have done you great credit, 
because those regiments have fought alongside of other 
regiments in the greatest battle English soldiers ever 
fought, and have behaved themselves most nobly, and 
sustained the honor of their country and city. 

"After we had taken our training in England, we 
were taken to France and sent up to the front, and im- 
mediately put in the trenches. The first thing that hap- 
pened was that the Canadians were put in the same 
trenches with regiments whose names are historic. All 
were anxious to see how our men would behave. Their 
behavior, gentlemen, was beyond question. Never a 
finer lot of men went abroad. You know many of them, 
and I know them all well. Some of them will never 
come back; but all, the living and the dead, have done 
their part; and the fame of the Canadian soldier has set 
its impress upon the imagination of the people of 


After an interesting description of trench life, 
Colonel Currie described the great contest of 22nd April, 

"The Belgians held the northern part of the line, 
about 25 miles, between Dixmude and Bixschoote. The 
western face of the salient at Ypres was held by the 
French, the southern by the English; and arrangements 
were made whereby the French troops were to be re- 
placed by British troops, with Canadian troops in the 
eastern angle of the salient. Well, when we heard the 
German shells exploding around us, we thought we were 
in a pretty tight corner. Those French trenches were 
very low, and in the shape of half-moons. Next us were 
the French troops, then the Belgians. The Germans 
gassed the French troops, consisting of Turcos. A great 
many of them died in their trenches, and the rest re- 
treated. It was in the early evening, about six o'clock. 
The Germans, some 250,000 of them, were coming with 
a thousand guns; and it looked as if we were going to 
suffer the greatest disaster that ever befell the British 
arms. It was then, gentlemen, that the Canadians 
turned the day, withstood that German tide. Alongside 
of my battalion on the Polecapelle Road was the 90th 
Regiment of Winnipeg. It is unnecessary for me to say 
just now how they fought. Steps were taken to throw 
a reserve battalion in on the north, where the Germans 
had broken through. The 16th and 10th went at them, 
and pressed them back about a mile. There were about 
25 Germans to every Canadian; but it was in the dusk 
of the evening, and the way those Canadians went at 
them, the Germans thought there were about three 
million. It is unnecessary for me to add that these brave 
regiments suffered terrible losses; but they did what 
they set out to do; they drove the Germans back and 
held that line. The 1st Canadian Brigade came on later 
in the evening, as soon as the roads were cleared. 



"In history, as you perhaps know, it is considered 
a terrible thing in war for a regiment to be decimated, 
that is, to lose 10 per cent, of its strength; but every one 
of these Canadian regiments lost over 50 per cent of 
their men and still held their ground. One of my com- 
panies was all but wiped out; only about fifteen men 
have turned up out of that whole company. Captain 
McGregor died the death of a hero, along with other 
famous officers Lieut. Taylor, one of the finest oars- 
men in the province of Ontario, and Lieut. Arthur Muir 
of Winnipeg; two of the finest athletes in the whole divi- 

''You will wonder why the Canadians stood there, 
holding their ground in the face of such awful odds. The 
reason they did not retire was this: In the first place 
the order was: 'You must hold your trenches. If the 
enemy take your trenches, you must counter-attack and 
drive them back with your bayonets.' At least seven 
times they were driven back with the bayonet. The re- 
cord of your 90th is similar; but they finally over- 
whelmed the front trench, about five o'clock in the even- 
ing. The order came down about that time that we were 
to retire. Only seventy men, another officer and myself, 
came out of that hell alive. The order went on down to 
the 90th. I understand it was about half an hour later 
before they were relieved. 

"It is not generally understood thoroughly how well 
the Canadians did in that terrible battle. Had they given 
way, the result would have been the most terrible disas- 
ter to British arms for thousands of years. That was 
one of the greatest battles in the history of the Empire. 
The number of men engaged was close upon three- 
quarters of a million; the casualties more than at the 
historic battles of Gettysburg or Sedan ; so the fact that 
the Canadians held the post of honor in a battle of that 
kind makes them well worthy of all praise. The heroism 


of all was remarkable. The wounded never murmured. 
They made light of even the most serious hurts. They 
merely said: 'It is all right; I am glad we have held 
them off.' Perhaps you think I am praising the Cana- 
dians, to the disadvantage of their fellow-fighters; so I 
will add that the English and French fought nobly. 
There was no question of the gallantry of any of the 
Allies' forces. 

"And what of the future? Great Britain has taken 
the measure, the Allies have taken the measure, of their 
adversary. But we will need men and more men, guns 
and more guns. The aeroplane, too, has played a great 
and important part in this war. We were a little short of 
aeroplanes at St. Julien and we felt the need of them. 
The British army has lived up to its traditions ; and the 
time will come when the great field army in France will 
go against the Germans and drive them out of Flanders. 
But we want, I repeat, more men. 

"It is the duty of those of you who remain at home 
to employ your business ability in active organization 
work, and see that every assistance is given to the 
men see that they are well fed, well-clad, well-supplied. 
Even if you are not in the ranks, you can assist. The 
German has one grudge against us that grudge seems 
to be that for five centuries England has dominated the 
world. It is world power or nothing with the Germans. 
But remember that the British race, though dominating 
the world, has never tyrannized over the weak and the 
helpless. It is worthy to be the dominating race and has 
shown it. For that reason, do everything you can to 
assist us in this war." 

Lt.-Col. Arthur W. Morley 




8th October, 1915 

Lt.-Colonel Arthur W. Morley, 90th Winnipeg Rifles. 

After an interesting description of mobilization and 
camp training Lt.-Col. Morley (then Major) told how the 
Little Black Devils embarked for France early in Febru- 
ary . "I recall, a few days after landing, our inspection 
by General French. It used to be in the old days, when 
British Officers came to Canada, they adopted a certain 
attitude toward Canadian soldiers, just because they 
were Canadians. But General French, when we arrived 
in France, inspected us in a very business-like manner. 
'You represent yourselves as what you appear, and I 
leave it to you,' seemed to be his attitude; and we were 
perfectly satisfied with it. In a short time the Canadians 
were given parts of the British line on their own re- 
sponsibility. At first, although we gained considerable 
experience, there was no particular opportunity to dis- 
tinguish ourselves. It is true that while we were there, 
the great battle of Neuve Chapelle took place; but we 
were engaged in that battle only in a technical sense, 
happening to be within the zone of operations. But in 
these trenches we learned trench routine how to make 
and improve trenches, how to look after them under 

"After some months of this, in the winter time, 
when it is very disagreeable moving about in what they 
call 'mud-mufflers,' we were sent into the line forming 
part of the salient at Ypres; and shortly afterwards, 
that great attack by the Germans took place, of which 
you have heard a surprise attack, preceded by the most 
inhuman use of gas. I am not going to describe that 
Babel in any detail, but will only mention one or two 
incidents. The gas was first used on the French, who 
were on the left of the Canadians and the Turcos gave 
way. The third Canadian Brigade were next ; and in the 


next two days' fighting, the 3rd Canadian Brigade had 
to fall back. The 2nd Brigade was next. Thus, the 2nd 
were compelled to hold the enormous gap formed where 
the Algerians or Turcos had fallen back and where the 
3rd Canadian Brigade had left their trenches. That gap 
had to be stopped in some way; for an immense army of 
Germans were attempting to pour through in their 
great thrust towards Calais; endeavoring also to break 
up more of the line. Apparently there were not reserves 
sufficient. The 2nd Brigade was filled out with the 8th 
and the 5th Battalions. The 7th and 10th were sent to 
assist the 3rd. The Germans had brought up an im- 
mense army, estimated at half a million men. The 10th 
Battalion of the 2nd Brigade was brought up and ordered 
to attack them. The Germans came up by night; and 
the attack which followed was one of the most notable 
things that has occurred during the war. 

"That 10th Battalion were Winnipeg men the 
100th and 106th Regiments, supported by the 16th Bat- 
talion of the 3rd Brigade. They attacked the Germans, 
who had, besides immensely superior forces, a great 
number of machine guns. They drove those Germans out 
of that wedge they had made. They stopped the 
German advance; and not only stopped that advance 
temporarily, but gained time for the British troops not 
immediately in reserve to be brought up to support the 
attack. It was one of the finest things that have been 
done by the Canadian Expeditionary Force. 

"I said that in the trenches were the 8th and the 
5th Battalions of the 2nd Brigade. In each of these, 
they had their local supports, consisting of one company 
immediately behind, where they could be thrown up 
with ease, some 600 or 800 yards to the rear. When the 
supports were ordered up to support the left, it happened 
that the officers of the two platoons were wounded and 
the troops could not advance further. It was then that 


Hall, my sergeant-major, took hold of the remnants of 
these two platoons, and took them up to the extreme left 
trench. While making this advance, they suffered so 
badly that less than half of them arrived at the trench. 
One man in particular was very badly wounded within 
some twenty or thirty yards of the extreme left trench, 
and different men tried to help this man in. First, one 
man who was already wounded went out to bring him 
in. This man was again wounded, very severely. An- 
other wounded man went out, and received a second 
wound, a mortal one. A third man tried it. He too was 
wounded. It seemed absolutely impossible that any man 
could get across that little space and live. It was then 
that Sergeant-Major Hall saw the men groaning there, 
wounded and apparently beyond assistance. He slung 
his rifle over his shoulder, and quite casually, yet quickly, 
went towards the stricken men. He picked up one of 
them and, though hundreds of bullets and shells stormed 
about him, returned to the trench and was all but safe 
when he received a bullet that killed instantly the man 
he was carrying. You have heard of Sergeant-Major 
Hall and how he was honored by the King. It was this 
feat of which I have just been telling you that made him 
the first Canadian of Winnipeg to win the Victoria Cross. 
When I tell you that not one German reached the lines 
of the 2nd Brigade, you can understand what our brave 
boys did to the Germans who advanced. We were re- 
lieved at that place on the morning of April 25th. A re- 
lief is always made in the early morning, before daylight 
when there is the least chance for the enemy to direct 
their fire. One company, No. 4, commanded by Captain 
Northwood, was unable to come out and had to remain. 
During the following day, the troops who relieved us 
were forced back ; but I want to tell you that No. 4 Com- 
pany held out until they were completely surrounded. 
One Winnipeg man you all knew him, in the Y.M.C.A. 
Geo. Aldritt was a machine gun sergeant. He fired 


his machine until the last moment, worked it until that 
No. 4 company and himself were completely surrounded 
and cut off from the main army. That is why you find 
to-day some of your Winnipeg men are unfortunately 
prisoners of war in Germany. 

"You have seen the picture called "The Roll Call"? 
Well, the re-formation of the 2nd Brigade at head- 
quarters, was like that. Of that Brigade, which origin- 
ally had more than four thousand men, less than one 
thousand reassembled back at headquarters. By that 
you can understand what it cost Winnipeg to hold its 
line at the battle of Ypres. 

"Soon afterwards we were sent to another part of 
the line, near Festubert where a very severe shelling 
took place. Capt. McMeans, commanding No. 2 Com- 
pany of the 8th Brigade, was in command of a trench 
which had been captured from the Germans. He was 
being shelled most unmercifully; and when half of his 
company were gone, McMeans said; 'Boys, if this thing 
keeps up, we will not have more than a corporal's guard 
to go out of here ; ' and with that, what were left of the 
company marched out in good order. Shortly afterwards 
he was killed in that trench. About the same time, 
Lieuts. Scott and Passmore also fell. The 8th Battalion 
there lost some of its most gallant officers, and Winni- 
peg some of its finest young men. 

"The trenches, too, have their lighter side. There 
are no more cheerful people connected with this war 
than the boys in the trenches. They make jokes about 
everything, especially the German shells. The officers 
are not excluded from their jokes. I recall one day in 
the trenches, when the word was passed among some of 
my own Tommies that some staff officers were coming 
down the trenches. 

" 'Staff officers in the trenches'! exclaimed one of 
the boys, 'Peace must have been declared!" 



15th October, 1915 

A. M. Nanton, Winnipeg, Charman Finance Committee, 
Manitoba Patriotic Fund. 

Immediately after the outbreak of the war in 
August, 1914, a meeting was held in the Winnipeg In- 
dustrial Bureau for the purpose of deciding what should 
be done towards helping the dependents of the soldiers 
going to the front. The result of that meeting, as Mr. 
Nanton reminded his hearers, was 'the formation of the 
Winnipeg Patriotic Fund. 

This Fund had at the beginning two purposes the 
first the care of the wives, children, mothers and other 
dependents of the soldiers who had joined the forces; 
the second, the care of those in distress or want through 
unemployment caused by the war. This Fund was after- 
wards extended to become the Manitoba Patriotic Fund, 
embracing not only the City of Winnipeg, but the whole 
province. The Winnipeg organization was the first of 
the kind formed in the Dominion. Some time later a 
national organization was formed, with headquarters at 
Ottawa. The Manitoba body affiliated with that or- 
ganization, but retained its own board of management 
and its moneys. 

Mr. Nanton stated that the total sum received for 
all purposes was approximately $830,000. Of this 
$115,000 was spent in relief work. Included in that sum 
was some $10,000, used for a wood camp which was the 
means of giving employment to a number of men out of 
work during the winter. That sum was carefully ex- 
pended, with the result that the value of the wood ob- 
tained totalled more than its cost. Relief in clothing, 
fuel, etc., was given to 2,430 families. (These were 
families not connected with the soldiers merely un- 
fortunate on account of the stress of the times.) Practic- 
ally all the relief in the way of money to soldiers' de- 


pendents passed through the hands of lady visitors, over 
one hundred in number. 

The general scale of monthly assistance determined 
on was: To a wife, without children, $10; wife with 
children, $10 and $5 extra for each of the first two 
children; allowances for additional children slightly re- 
duced. The maximum allowance from the Fund to any 
family was put at $40 per month. Widows supported 
by their sons also receive assistance. In cases of illness, 
special consideration is given to the case, but in no in- 
stance is the $40 maximum exceeded. The following is 
an example of what a private's wife with two children 
would have to live on: Separation allowance from the 
government, $20; part of husband's pay, $15; from 
Patriotic Fund $20; total per month, $55. In cases 
where the wife is receiving the salary of her husband 
from those employers who are paying their employees' 
salaries while they are away at the war, she gets nothing 
while the husband's pay is being drawn. The allowances 
from the Patriotic Fund are kept up until wounded or 
discharged men return to Canada, or pensions are ar- 
ranged. After this, it is thought that the Returned 
Soldiers' Fund should take care of the soldier and his 

"This organization has been a stimulus to recruit- 
ing," Mr. Nanton pointed out. "I am not exaggerating 
when I say that thousands of men have called at the of- 
fices of the Fund before enlisting, with the purpose of 
ascertaining what would be done for their dependents 
if they went to the front. The work done has almost 
been too great to go into details about it; but I would 
like to tell you one or two things. In the first place, 
there is not one cent of cost in connection with the ex- 
penditure in the way of unemployment relief an ex- 
penditure amounting to $115,000. (This phase of the 
work is not being continued this winter). It was all 
done for nothing; the men and officials gave their time 
gratuitously. Then, in connection with the assistance 
given to the soldiers' dependents, the total expense dur- 
ing the past year has not been more than $6,400. Of 


this, some $3,500 was paid out in salaries, and the bal- 
ance disbursed in the way of printing, advertising, post- 
age, and things of that kind. You may ask Kow has 
this been done? Well, it could only have been done 
through the assistance given the Fund by the Industrial 
Bureau. We were given free offices; we were allowed 
the use of the general organization of the Bureau; and 
we had with us, to guide our affairs, the able Secretary 
of the Bureau, C. P. Roland. 

"I have not got before me figures showing the exact 
sums raised for patriotic purposes in the provinces out- 
side of Manitoba; but I can tell you what we have raised 
here. We have raised aproximately $1.43 per person in 
the province, and, I understand, in no other province in 
the Dominion of Canada has the amount as yet come up 
to $1.00 per head. This comparison may seem good. 
Some may argue that we should stop and let some of the 
others come forward; but I entirely disagree with that. 
If the provinces outside of us are not doing so much as 
we are, we should go to their assistance and show them 
that we can not only raise money to take care of our 
own men that have gone to the front, but that we are 
able and willing to help them take care of theirs. After 
this war is over, there will be two kinds of men those 
who did their bit and those who did not. It seems to 
me that the Empire will have very little to do with those 
who did not." 



26th October, 1915 

The Marquis of Aberdeen and Temaire. 
Governor General of Canada 1893-1898. 

His Lordship remarked in rising that the experi- 
ences of the morning had reminded him of the title of 
a once well-known book "Looking Backward." 

"You may remember that the author of that book 
describes himself as having been in a deep slumber for a 
period of many years, so that when he awoke he found 
himself in entirely new surroundings, in the midst of 
a sort of Utopia Well, I thought of that during my brief 
inspection of some of the principal streets and buildings 
of the City of Winnipeg as it is to-day. In the case of 
the Utopia in which the author of the book I have men- 
tioned found himself, there were some extraordinary 
changes; but in the case of Winnipeg, after all, it is the 
same city in regard to its spirit of enterprise and energy 
and determination. I have heard a great deal of this 
city; but seeing is believing; and I have now had an op- 
portunity of seeing something of the wonderful physical 
improvements, the noble buildings, which grace your 
streets. One institution seems to vie with another in 
establishing the outward and visible manifestation of 
the enterprise and worth of the city and of the Domin- 
ion. No visitor can fail to be impressed by these evid- 
ences of progress. As I said before, it is the spirit which 
animates a community which is the essential thing; and 
I cannot help recalling what your distinguished former 
governor-general, Lord Dufferin, said about Winnipeg 
that it was the 'bull's-eye of Canada.' 

"I wish particularly to say that Britain is proud 
of the way in which this great Dominion has come for- 


ward in the present supreme emergency. I would like 
to go further and say that the Canadian contingents 
have shown in a noble way what manner of men they 
were and are. Even in the face of great inequalities 
they have, not only by their distinguished conduct on 
the battlefield, shown their mettle, but also by the man- 
ner in which they went through their preliminary phase 
of camp life. Through entirely unavoidable complica- 
tions they were compelled to don their uniforms and go 
into camp before arrangements were fully completed; 
and to go through this experience without a word of 
complaint implies a hardihood which carries out in a 
thoroughly manly sense the spirit of the apostolic ex- 
hortation: 'Do thou, my son, endure hardships as a 
good soldier!' 

"Theirs was no 'five o'clock in the morning' courage. 
In the face of terrific emergencies one can imagine 
what it must have been to those brought up wholly un- 
acquainted with the horrors of war to face the nervous 
stress of trench and cannonade they proved them- 
selves men and true sons of the Empire. The people of 
Canada have been nobly represented in those who have 
gone forth to fight the battles, not only of the British 
Empire, but in the truest sense of this great Dominion. 
We have all got our friends and dear ones there. I feel 
free to look you in the face, gentlemen, for I have a son 
at the front with the Canadian Scottish. I am sure that 
Winnipeg has done her part in a most distinguished and 
noble manner in regard to contribution, both of men and 
in help of other kinds, to the great cause of patriotism 
and freedom. 

"Let me congratulate you on the existence of this 
Club, which I understand is one of a group which exists 
for co-operation and the interchange of ideas, and forms 
a sort of chain across the Dominion. My last word to 
you will be in connection with that building up of an ex- 


cellent civic community which is going on here. One 
cannot think without a slight feeling of envy of the 
great scope for development that you have here. We 
know that town-planning is now very much to the fore, 
and is an important and scientific aspect of the move- 
ment tending to the welfare of the community. The 
city of the future will be planned so as to make use of 
the natural advantages of the site upon which it is 
founded. I hope the future expansion of your province 
and city will go on side by side with the intellectual de- 
velopment of the community as a whole. I offer again 
my hearty good wishes for the future success of the 
Canadian Club." 


4th November, 1915 

Lieutenant J. J. Simons. 

Speaking on behalf of the Australian Cadets who 
were making a world-tour under his charge, Lieutenant 
Simons affirmed that they felt while moving across the 
Canadian section of the North American continent, as 
though they were receiving a new inspiration, a broader 
knowledge, and above all that they were enhancing their 
pride in the British Empire , 

"While fractional difference exists, we know that 
on broader and bigger principles we in Australia and 
you in Canada stand together for the greater things in 
the life of the Empire. We think with one brain, we feel 
with one heart, and we respond to the same enthu- 

"We Australians are very proud of our Australian 
continent. How many people in the British Empire 
realize the extensiveness and the possibilities of that 
great territory in the southern seas! sometimes mis- 
named an island, but actually larger than the whole of 
the United States. It has been the dream of that 
wonderful far-off continent to become the home of a 
great nation ; and it was this dream which inspired one 
of our poets to sing of 'Australia, Empress of the 
Southern Seas.' We represent a broad expanse of ter- 
ritory, which has been entrusted to people of one tongue, 
one race, and one ideal. But while we feel an unabating 
pride in belonging to the great Australian nation, we 
have a pride that overtowers that even, and that is the 
fact that our continent is, and is to be, a part of the great 
British Empire. Our vision of the future leads us to be- 
lieve that, great as have been the achievements of the 
British race during the past thousand years, great as 


has been the development of the Empire during the 19th 
century, it is all only a forerunner of the greater part 
which the British Empire is to play in the destinies of 
the world. 

"Of course you are all interested to know how 
Australia is attempting to fulfil the duty of her people 
as guardians of that part of the British Empire. Every 
energy, every resource, every suggestion of prac- 
tical value made by our citizens, have entered into 
the work of making our continent secure against 
attack. We realize that we are the keepers of 
one of the greatest provinces of the great Imper- 
ial domain, and we know it is a heritage worth 
having, and worth keeping; and if worth enjoying, 
worth defending. How to defend it was our problem. 

"We have evolved a system which is not conscrip- 
tion, but yet exacts compulsory service from every male 
who lives in Australia. Of course we have had critics 
who prophesied failure, who said that the scheme of 
practically compelling army service was un-British. But 
when you come to think of all the things the Britisher 
does by compulsion, you become amazed that we should 
submit to them at all. He gets educated by compulsion, 
to fight the battle of life in commerce and trade. Why 
should he not be compelled to prepare to take part in 
the great battle for the existence of the Empire? 

"Every boy between 12 and 26 years is a member 
of the Australian citizen army in some capacity or 
other. Now, even assuming that we do not have any 
great increase in population during the next four or five 
years, our system is going to give Australia within that 
time 600,000 armed and trained men fully equipped, 
properly trained, ready to spring to arms at a moment's 
notice! We are the only Britsh community that has 
made the experiment, and it has succeeded beyond our 
wildest dreams. 



"Training and discipline stiffen the national fibre. 
With your seven or eight million people, allowing a 
percentage of able-bodied men proportionately similar 
to ours, the same system would give the Dominion of 
Canada nine hundred thousand men. And this military 
training does not interfere with the advancement of 
your men as citizens in fact a trained man is a citizen 
improved. Now, if Canada and Australia had both had 
this system in force, that would have given to the Em- 
pire 1,500,000 men. Apply the same system to Great 
Britain, to South Africa, and to all the British posses- 
sions; and it is a very simple process of arithmetic to 
arrive at the total number of soldiers that would be thus 
made available throughout the Empire. Training is 
just as necessary as courage. 

"Now, consider what the Empire, organized in a 
naval sense, has been able to accomplish. It has eclipsed 
even the glories of Trafalgar by wiping from the seas 
every German battleship and merchantman. Suppose 
that the armies of the British Empire had been or- 
ganized as well what would have been the result? It 
would have been this; to those tons of floating German 
junk would have been added millions of rifles and tons 
of big guns, rendered useless by sheer force of military 

In conclusion Lieutenant Simons spoke of the plea- 
sure that was being experienced during the party's trip 
across the Dominion and of the pride felt when they 
had read and heard of the deeds of Canadians in 
Flanders. Commenting upon the fact that the fibre of 
British citizenship is such throughout the Empire that 
none can lay a disturbing finger on any part without 
vibrations of sympathy running to the uttermost bounds, 
the Lieutenant found in this the real significance of the 
phrase: "Let us live for all time as a united British